Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Morus Alba Leaves on Human Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia K-562 Cell Lines

  • Muhammad Yusran Abdul Aziz Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Abstract

The rate of occurrence and prevalence of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) are increasing globally, despite it being a rare type of cancer. Morus alba also known as mulberry, has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for a long time to treat various conditions and diseases like hypertension and arthritis. Modern scientific studies have also recognized its medicinal properties, including antioxidant, antidiuretic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial and anticancer. However, its antiproliferative effects on specifically human CML K-562 cell lines remain poorly elucidated. This study aims to determine the antiproliferative effects of M. alba on K-562 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Acridine orange and propidium iodide (AO/PI) dual staining were then employed to assess the method of cell death. The ethanolic extract of M. alba leaves exhibited significant antiproliferative activity, with the lowest maximal half inhibitory concentration (IC50) value observed at 72 hours being 23 µg/mL. Notably, AO/PI staining revealed significant morphological changes, such as membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation, and indicator of early apoptosis, and late apoptosis. These results demonstrated that ethanolic extract of M. alba leaves induces apoptotic cell death in K-562 cells. Overall, these findings suggested that ethanolic extract of M. alba leaves exerts potent antiproliferative effects on human CML K-562 cells a in time- and dose-dependent manner.

Published
2024-03-13
How to Cite
Abdul Aziz, M. Y. (2024). Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Morus Alba Leaves on Human Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia K-562 Cell Lines. Asian Journal of Medicine and Biomedicine, 8(1), 163-171. https://doi.org/10.37231/ajmb.2024.8.1.648