The Different Molecular Targets and Its Significant Role in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review

Different Molecular Targets in Alzheimer's Disease

  • Dr. P Perumal SRI SHANMUGHA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY
  • Manimekalai Pichaivel Swamy Vivekananda College of Pharmacy

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease is a severe neurodegenerative brain illness that affects the majority of the older population. Alzheimer's disease has become a substantial public health problem due to increased life expectancy in the general population and a better understanding of the disease's socioeconomic effects. This review explores the cholinergic theory, amyloid plaque formation, tau protein hyperphosphorylation, neuroinflammation pathway, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, genetic aetiology, infectious pathways, and environmental factors in Alzheimer's disease. Physical and neurological tests, which include intelligence, muscle tone and strength, vision and hearing, and communication, are used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease. In order to make an early diagnosis, brain imaging techniques such as MRI and CT are used. Inflammatory biomarkers like IL-1, IL-6, TNF- α, and TGF- β are all computed in blood testing. The activity of acetylcholinesterase and the concentration of neurotransmitter acetylcholine are measured using a biochemical probe. There is no definite cure, although symptomatic treatment includes cholinesterase inhibitors such as Tacrine, Donepezil, and Rivastigmine, as well as NMDA antagonists such as Memantine are available. For better efficacy, combination therapy such as cholinesterase inhibitors with antioxidants and a combination of hybrid inhibitors has become preferred. Current research focuses on establishing various causes of disease and generating more effective, target-oriented pharmaceutical treatments.

Published
2024-03-09
How to Cite
Dr. P Perumal, & Manimekalai Pichaivel. (2024). The Different Molecular Targets and Its Significant Role in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review. Asian Journal of Medicine and Biomedicine, 8(1), 111-143. https://doi.org/10.37231/ajmb.2024.8.1.650