• Yaza Azzahara Ulyana Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (Unisza)


Abstract: Cultural diplomacy is part of soft power that brings the idea of culture at its best presentation abroad. This paper focuses on the cultural diplomacy imposed by the government of Indonesia and Malaysia.  This study is written to identify the role of cultural diplomacy in building up the cordial relationship between Indonesia and Malaysia proven by the long diplomatic history way before the independence of Malaya in 1957.  In conjunction of that matter this research paper sought to evaluate the cultural relations between Indonesia and Malaysia and then raises several cultural diplomacy programs that have been conducted by the two countries in educations, performing arts and literature. This research is a qualitative study proven by analysing the printed and digital materials as the secondary data and bringing the constructivism concept from Alexander Wendt. The concept that introduced by Alexander Wendt can explain the unprecedented condition in international relations. Having analysed the data, this study found that by enhancing the cultural diplomacy as the soft power approach in each country is able to give a good impact for Indonesia and Malaysia relations especially in reducing the tensions among the society over several societal issues in the past. It can be seen from the number of students who are coming to Malaysia and Indonesia to continue their study, the number of touristevery year and also the frequency of performing arts of Indonesia in Malaysia and vice versa. 

Key Words: Constructivism, Cultural Diplomacy, Indonesia, Malaysia, Soft Power

Author Biography

Yaza Azzahara Ulyana, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (Unisza)



Bell, Andrew J. (2005). Qualitative Sociology Review; Lodz Vol. 1, Iss. 1, Retrieved from

Collis,J. and Hussey,R. (2003). Business Research: Apractical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire

Cribb, R. (2010). Digital Atlas of Indonesian History of Majapahit’s Overseas Empire. Retrieved on January 21, 2017, from:

Hall D.G.E. (1956). Problems of Indonesian Historiography. Pacific Affairs 38 (3/4): 353 —359.

Ho Ying chan. (2016). Examining the Concept of a Special Relationship: A Study of Indonesia-Malaysia Relations. The Asian Conference on the Social Sciences 2016 Official Conference Proceedings

Isar, Y.R. (2010). Cultural Diplomacy:an overplayed hand? Public Diplomacy Magazine, 3. Retrieved from

Jessica C. E. Gienow-Hecht, Mark C. Donfried. (2013). Searching for a Cultural Diplomacy. International Journal 13-16

Krippendorff, K. and Bock, M.A. (2008). The Content Analysis Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Marshall Clark. (2013). the Politics of Heritage, Indonesia and the Malay World, 41:121, 396-417, DOI: 10.1080/13639811.2013.804979

Mestika Zed. (2015). HUBUNGAN INDONESIA-MALAYSIA: Perspektif Budaya dan Keserumpunan Melayu Nusantara. Journal Vol.XI No.2

Moore, D. S., & McCabe, G. P. (2005). Introduction to the Practice of Statistics (5th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman & Company

Nye, J. (2004). Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. Public Affairs, p. 16

Shannon, Vaughn P. and Kowert, Paul A. (2013). Psychology and Constructivism in International Relations: An Ideational Alliance. (MI, USA: University of Michigan Press: 2011): 58.

How to Cite
Ulyana, Y. A. (2018). THE ROLE OF CULTURAL DIPLOMACY: INDONESIA – MALAYSIA RELATIONS. Asian People Journal (APJ), 1(2), 197-206. Retrieved from