al-Aqalliyah al-muslimah fi Amirika wa musharakatiha al-Siyasah: Nazrat fiqhiyyah [Involvement of the American muslim minority in domestic politics: A fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) approach].

Ghailan Ali Mused Aljabali, Amin Ahmad al-Nahari, Nur Naima Abdul Rahman

Abstract

عن إحدى أهم المشكلات والنوازل الفقهية التي لها تعلق كبير بالأقلية المسلمة في أمريكا، وهي المشاركة السياسية بجميع أنواعها كالمشاركة في الأحزاب الأمريكية وتكوينها، والمشاركة في الانتخابات كناخبين أو مُنتخَبين، وتولي مناصب وظيفية سواء عامة أو خاصة؛ فبيان الحكم الفقهي وتبعاته فيها له أهمية كبيرة؛ حيث إنه يسهل على المسلمين العيش بسلام مع بقية مكونات المجتمع؛ لينالوا حقوقهم كاملة محافظين بذلك على هويتهم من الانصهار الكلي، والاندماج السلبي، فجاء هذا البحث تلبية لاحتياج هذه الأقلية لمعرفة أحكام الشريعة في ذلك، ولـِمَا في ذلك من تعزيز لروابط الأخوة، ومدّ جسور التعاون بين المسلمين سواء كانوا أكثرية في بلد أو أقلية في بلد آخر.  وقد استخدم الباحث المنهج التحليلي الوصفي، فجاء البحث مشتملا على ثلاثة مباحث:المبحث الأول : مفهوم الأقلية المسلمة في أمريكا وتاريخها، المبحث الثاني: المقصود بالمشاركة السياسة لغة واصطلاحا، وأنواعها، والمبحث الثالث : الاتجاهات الفكرية والفقهية لعلماء المسلمين المعاصرين في حكم مشاركة الأقلية المسلمة في أمريكا سياسيا. وخلص البحث إلى نتائج أهمها: القول بجواز مشاركة الأقلية المسلمة في السياسة بجميع أنواعها وفقا للضوابط الشرعية، وأيضا من أهم ما أوصى به البحث وجوب متابعة أحوال الأقليات المسلمة عامة وفي أمريكا خاصة.

 

There has been a growing interest in investigating the Fiqh opinion about the involvement of the American Muslim Minority in American domestic politics and affairs. Such involvement includes the participation in and formation of political parties, voting in elections, running as nominees and occupying governmental or private positions. Thus, it is crucial to understand the position of the Islamic law concerning this issue. This is especially important because it allows American Muslims to live in peace and tolerance with other sects of society, all while practicing their rights and refraining from absolute integration and negative assimilation. This study serves to provide this minority with a much-needed elucidation of the Shari’a opinion on this matter. It also strengthens the bonds between Muslims globally and facilitates cooperation between them as one Ummah regardless of whether they are a majority. This study follows a descriptive analysis approach and consists of three subtopics: a) definition and history of the Islamic minority in the U.S.A.; b) linguistic definition, explanation and types of political involvement; and c) intellectual and Islamic approaches of contemporary scholars on the involvement of the American Muslim minority in domestic politics. The study concludes that it is Islamically permissible to take part in such domestic affairs following certain guidelines, and shows the importance of following and supporting Muslim minorities all over the world, and in the U.S.A. in particular.

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