Metode Penghujahan al-Ash’ari Mendepani Aliran Menyeleweng [Al-Ash’ari’s Argumentative Method Opposing Deviant Sects]

Muhammad Rashidi Wahab, Mohd Fauzi Hamat

Abstract

Kemunculan al-Ash’ari sebagai tokoh Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah yang terkemuka telah memberikan satu dimensi baru dalam wacana pengajian akidah. Beliau berjaya memberikan sumbangan berharga dalam mempertahankan akidah Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah daripada serangan pelbagai aliran dan fahaman yang menyeleweng. Namun sebilangan umat Islam didapati tidak mendapat gambaran yang tepat mengenai kerangka pemikiran al-Ash’ari menyebabkan berlakunya beberapa salah faham terhadapnya. Menerusi analisis kandungan dokumen, makalah ini akan meneliti metode penghujahan yang digunakan oleh al-Ash’ari dalam berinteraksi dengan aliran dan fahaman menyeleweng pada zamannya, khususnya Mu’tazilah. Hasil penelitian mendapati bahawa al-Ash’ari menggunakan metodologi pendalilan berasaskan dalil naqli daripada al-Quran dan hadis serta dalil ‘aqli. Dalam dalil ‘aqli, al-Ash’ari menggunakan penghujahan mantik, khususnya al-qiyas, secara sistematik sama ada dari aspek al-surah atau al-maddah. Metode ini berjaya memelihara akidah Islam daripada serangan pelbagai aliran dan fahaman menyeleweng yang bertentangan dengan Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. Kekuatan metode ini juga menjadi kunci kejayaan Asha’irah dalam menyebarluas akidah Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah ke seluruh dunia sehingga hari ini.


This paper intends to examine the emergence of al-Ash’ari as the prominent Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. This figure has given a new dimension in the discourse of theology. He succeeded in making a valuable contribution to defend the faith of Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah from the attacks of diverse streams and deviations. Yet some Muslims have found no exact picture of al-Ash’ari’s thought framework resulting some misunderstandings. Through content analysis, this paper examines the argumentative method used by al-Ash’ari in interacting with the deviant sects and misunderstandings during the years, especially Mu’tazilah. The result of the study founded that al-Ash’ari uses the methodology of the examination based on the prophecy of naqli from al-Quran and hadis and the ‘aqli. In the ‘aqli, al-Ash’ari uses a logic argument, especially al-qiyas, systematically either from the aspect of al-surah or al-maddah. This method managed to preserve the Islamic faith from the attacks of various sects and deviations that contradict Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah. The strength of this method is believe to be the key to Asha’irah’s success in spreading the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jama’ah’s theology to the world today.

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