A Conceptual Paper for Educational Leadership Models in Malaysia

  • Aze Fauziah Suib Faculty of Business and Management, UniSZA
  • Puspa Liza Ghazali Faculty of Business and Management, UniSZA
  • Bahyah Binti Abdul Halim Faculty of Business and Management, UniSZA
  • Nik Hazimi Mohammed Foziah Faculty of Business and Management, UniSZA
Keywords: leadership models, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, instructional leadership.


Researchers are paying attention to leadership management in the field of education after the Ministry of Education placed high leadership in schools as a shift to improve the standard of Malaysia's education system in the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Leadership is mentioned as a necessity for reforming educational institutions. It has the potential to influence teachers’ performance and academic success of students. Transactional, transformational, and instructional leadership models were found out to be the most prominent types of leadership in Malaysian educational institutions. However, only few studies on leadership models and teachers’ performance have been conducted, especially in the field of special education. Therefore, this study was developed with the aim of proposing a conceptual framework involving the instructional leadership model and teacher success in order to fill a void in the current literature, based on previous scholars' recommendations. The paper started by giving an overview of the three types of models that are widely used before forming the conceptual structure and seeking past studies concerning leadership models and teacher-related factors. Finally, the constructs of teachers' self-efficacy and job satisfaction were applied to the proposed framework, which is intended to introduce new perspectives into the field of special education leadership.


Download data is not yet available.


Abas, N., & Basri, R. (2019). Relationship Between the Dimensions of Senior Subject Teachers’(GKMP) Instructional Leadership and the Learning Organisation at Schools. International Research Journal of Education and Sciences (IRJES),3, 2550-2158.

Abdullah, J. B., Suprammaniam, S. S., Mohamed, N. A. S., & Yusof, S. I. M. (2020). The Relationship of Instructional Leadership Towards Teachers’ Development Through Instructional Coaching Among Malaysian School Leaders. International Educational Research, 3(2), 9-20.

Abubakar, A.-M., Inuwa, B. B., & Hamma, M. (2018). Principal Leadership Style towards Teachers’ Motivation on Secondary Schools in Nigeria. 125(Icigr 2017), 88–90. https://doi.org/10.2991/icigr-17.2018.21

Armugam, B., Arshad, M. M., Ismail, I. A., & Hamzah, S. R. (2019). Investigating the Link between Transformational Leadership Style on Succession Planning Program in National Secondary Schools in Seremban District, Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 8(4), 201–214. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarped/v8-i4/6489

Arokiasamy, A. R. A., Abdullah, A. G. K., @ Shaari, M. Z. A., & Ismail, A. (2016). Transformational Leadership of School Principals and Organizational Health of Primary School Teachers in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 151–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.07.124

Arokiasamy, A. R. A., Zohir, M., Shaari, A., & Ismail, A. (2017). A Qualitative Study on the Relationship between School Leadership Styles and the Governing Systems of School Principals in Peninsular Malaysia. 6256, 764–770. https://doi.org/10.21276/sjhss.2017.2.9.2

Azar, A. S., & Adnan, E. J. (2020). The Impact of Effective Educational Leadership on School Students’ Performance in Malaysia. Education Quarterly Reviews, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.31014/aior.1993.03.02.127

Baharin, B., Adnan, M.H., Mohd Zin, M.H., Kamaludin, M.N. & Mansor, A.N. (2016). Gaya Kepimpinan Guru Besar Dan Tahap Efikasi Guru. Journal of Personalized Learning, 2(1), 9–17. http://spaj.ukm.my/jplearning/index.php/jplearning/article/view/38/63

Chainani, P.A. (2020). A School Leader's Perspective on Instructional Leadership: Qualitative Study.

Dhal, P. (2021). Quality Management in Education By Prof . Pravat Kumar Dhal HOD , Department of Education Pravatkumar.dhal@gmail.com Electronic copy available at : https://ssrn.com/abstract=3726921. January. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.22022.40004

Ghavifekr, S. (2017). Building Nation Through Effective Schools: Instructional Leadership Practices of Headmaster Towards Teachers’job Satisfaction. Prosiding Seminar Kebangsaan Majlis Dekan Pendidikan Universiti Awam 2017, 108

Gumus, S., Bellibas, M. S., Esen, M., & Gumus, E. (2018). A systematic review of studies on leadership models in educational research from 1980 to 2014. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 46(1), 25–48. https://doi.org/10.1177/1741143216659296

Gyasi, K. (2015). Participative leadership practice in junior high schools and actions to improve the practice: a case study of Sekyere south district, Ghana. 3–10. https://jyx.jyu.fi/bitstream/handle/123456789/47230/5/URN-NBN-fi-jyu-201509303290.pdf

Hassan, R., Ahmad, J., & Boon, Y. (2018). Instructional leadership in Malaysia. International Journal of Engineering and Technology(UAE), 7(3.30 Special Issue 30), 424–432. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.30.18346

Hassan, R. & Ahmad, J. & Boon, Y. (2019). Instructional Leadership Practice and Professional Learning Community in the Southern Zone of Malaysia. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 7. 42-50. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2019.071906.

Herawati, R., & Tjahjono, H. K. (2020). The Influence of Instructional Leadership on Professional Competence Mediated by Self-Efficacy and Social Capital. Jurnal Manajemen Bisnis, 11(2), 202-213.

Hui, L. S., & Singh, G. S. B. (2020). The Influence of Instructional Leadership on Learning Organisation at High Performing Primary Schools in Malaysia. Asian Journal of University Education, 16(2), 69-76.

Ismail, A. Y. (2017). Gaya Kepimpinan Pengetua Dan Kepuasan Kerja Guru Di Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Daerah Marang, Terengganu. Proceedings of the ICECRS, 1(1), 69–72. https://doi.org/10.21070/picecrs.v1i1.577

Ismail, A., & Mydin, A. A. (2019). The Impact of Transformational Leadership and Commitment on Teachers’ Innovative Behaviour. 304(Acpch 2018), 426–430. https://doi.org/10.2991/acpch-18.2019.100

Ismail, S. N., Don, Y., Husin, F., & Khalid, R. (2018). Instructional leadership and teachers’ functional competency across the 21st century learning. International Journal of Instruction, 11(3), 135–152. https://doi.org/10.12973/iji.2018.11310a

Ismail, S. N., Muhammad, S., Omar, M. N., & Raman, A. (2020). The Great Challenge of Malaysian School Leaders' Instructional Leadership: Can It Affect Teachers' Functional Competency across 21st Century Education?. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(6), 2436-2443.

Jalapang, I., & Raman, A. (2020). Effect of instructional leadership, principal efficacy, teacher efficacy and school climate on students’ academic achievements. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 9(3), 82-82.

Khun-inkeeree, H., Ahmad, A. A., & MohdSofian, F. N. R. (2018). The Relationship between Principals’ Instructional Leadership and Teachers’ Self Efficacy in Religious Private School in Alor Setar District. Rangsit Journal of Educational Studies, 5(2), 52-63.

Bellibas, M. S., & Liu, Y. (2017). Multilevel analysis of the relationship between principals’ perceived practices of instructional leadership and teachers’ self-efficacy perceptions. Journal of Educational Administration, 55(1), 49-69.

Liu, Y., Bellibaş, M. S., & Gumuş, S. (2021). The effect of instructional leadership and distributed leadership on teacher self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Mediating roles of supportive school culture and teacher collaboration. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 49(3), 430-453.

Mannan, F. (2018). The relationship between women principal instructional leadership practices, teacher organizational commitment and teacher professional community practice in secondary schools in kuala lumpur. Instructional Leadership to The Fore: Research and Evidence, 1, 13.

Medina, N. I., Mansor, A. N., Wahab, J. L. A., & Vikaraman, S. S. (2018). Principals’ Instructional Leadership in Small School-A Preliminary Study. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(8). https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v8-i8/4623

Muniapan, B. (n.d.). Issues and Challenges of Management. 1–12.

Musa, J. B., Nazarudin, M. N. B., Noordin, Z. B., & Juati, N. A. Investigating Instructional Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Self-Efficacy and Trust among Primary School Teacher. International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counselling, 5(35), 237-248.

Narad, A., Kaitano, D. N. H., & Lakhanpal, S. (2020). Leadership styles and organizational climate as predictors of teacher effectiveness in secondary schools teachers. European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, 7(7), 3446–3456.

Nasir, M. I. M., & Sin, I. (2016). Transformational Leadership among School Principals in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 6(11), 398–403. https://doi.org/10.6007/ijarbss/v6-i11/2408

Naz, F., & Rashid, S. (2021). Effective Instructional Leadership can Enhance Teachers’ Motivation and Improve Students’ Learning Outcomes. Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research, 4(1), 477-485. https://doi.org/10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss1-2021(477-485)

Nor, S. A. M. (2017). Amalan Kepimpinan Pengetua Di Sekolah Prestasi Akademik Tinggi Dan Rendah di Daerah Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Proceedings of the ICECRS, 1(1), 221–230. https://doi.org/10.21070/picecrs.v1i1.604

Nurlaili, A. W., & Abdullah, M. Y. (2018). Relationship between Leadership Style and Headmaster Management With Job Satisfaction of. Jurnal Ilmi, 136–150.

Othman, C. (2020). Hubungan Antara Kepimpinan Instruksional Guru Besar dengan Komitmen Guru di Sekolah Luar Bandar, Malaysia. Proceedings of the International Conference On Education, Islamic Studies And Social Sciences Research, 5, 221–237. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343228445_HUBUNGAN_ANTARA_KEPIMPINAN_INSTRUKSIONAL_GURU_BESAR_DENGAN_KOMITMEN_GURU_DI_SEKOLAH_LUAR_BANDAR_MALAYSIA

Paturusi, A. (2017). Contributions of Leadership Style, Managerial Skills of Principals and Compensation to the Performance of Teachers. Journal of Education and Human Development, 6(4), 105–114. https://doi.org/10.15640/jehd.v6n4a12

Quang Giao, N., & Ngoc Thanh, H. (2020). Application of Quality Management Models Aiming Towards Innovation in Management at Vietnamese Universities. Higher Education Research, 5(2), 52.

Sehgal, P., Nambudiri, R., & Mishra, S. K. (2017). Teacher effectiveness through self-efficacy, collaboration and principal leadership. International Journal of Educational Management, 31(4)

Şirin, Y. E., Aydın, Ö., & Bilir, F. P. (2018). Transformational-transactional leadership and organizational cynicism perception: Physical education and sport teachers sample. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(9), 2008–2018. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.060920

Taylor, A., & Hill, F. (1993). Quality Management in Education. Quality Assurance in Education, 1(1), 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1108/09684889310040712

Thien, L. M., Liu, S., Yee, L. Q., & Donnie, A. (2021). Investigating a multiple mediated-effects model of instructional leadership and teacher professional learning in the Malaysian School Context: A partial least squares analysis. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 17411432211009892.

Thien, L. M., Lim, S. Y., & Adams, D. (2021). The evolving dynamics between instructional leadership, collective teacher efficacy, and dimensions of teacher commitment: what can Chinese independent high schools tell us?. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 1-23.

Velarde, J. (2017). Instructional leadership practices in international schools in Malaysia: A case study. International online Journal of educational leadership, 1(1), 90-117.

Veraya, S.V.V. (2020). Headmasters ’ Transformational Leadership Style , Teachers ’ Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction Headmasters ’ transformational leadership style , teachers ’ organizational commitment and job satisfaction : Mediating Role of organizational comm. 1, 39–46.

Veeriah, J., Chua, Y. P., & Siaw, Y. L. (2017). Principal’s Transformational Leadership and Teachers’ Affective Commitment in Primary Cluster Schools in Selangor. International Online Journal of Educational Leadership, 1(1), 60–89. https://doi.org/10.22452/iojel.vol1no1.4

Wahab, J.A., Mansor, A.Z., Hussin, M., & Kumarasamy, S. (2020). Headmasters' Instructional Leadership and Its Relationship with Teachers Performance. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8, 97-102.

Wenno, I. H. (2016). Effect of Principal Managerial Leadership and Compensation towards Physics Teacher Performance in Senior High School in Baguala District-Ambon. International Education Studies, 10(1), 233. https://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v10n1p233

Yusof, R.M., & Wahab, J.A. (2019). Principal’s Instructional Leadership And Its Relation To Teachers’ Commitment In High Performance Schools (Hps) In Seremban District. International Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling, 4(33), 107-121.

How to Cite
Suib, A. F., Ghazali, P. L., Abdul Halim, B. B., & Mohammed Foziah, N. H. (2021). A Conceptual Paper for Educational Leadership Models in Malaysia. The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP), 2(2), 39-43. https://doi.org/10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.2.105
Marketing & Management