Mediating Role of Quality of Life in the Relationship between Prison Climate and Life Satisfaction

  • Mohd Norbayusri Baharudin Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Mahadzirah Mohamad Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Fazida Karim Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
Keywords: Quality of Life, prison climate, life satisfaction, drug-abuse inmates, Malaysia

Abstract

This study emphasises the importance of Quality of Life (QoL) as a bridge between prison climate and life satisfaction among Malaysian drug-abuse inmates. The respondents are given a self-administered assessment randomly selected from the list of drug-abuse inmates in a Malaysian prison. The Structural Equation Modelling in IBM-SPSS-AMOS 25.0 is applied to model and calculate the inter-relationships among the constructs in the study. The results show that QoL significantly influences drug abuse inmates' prison climate and life satisfaction and partially mediates the relation between prison climate and life satisfaction among Malaysian drug-abuse inmates. QoL is essential to fulfil drug-abuse inmates' life satisfaction during imprisonment and achieve a better life in the community after being released from prison. Hence, practical contributions are proposed to the Malaysian Prison Department for designing appropriate policies and strategies to improve prison climate and QoL for achieving drug-abuse inmates' life satisfaction since Malaysian life satisfaction has become the government's priority in the 12th Malaysia Plan (2021-2025). 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ali, N. A. M., Mohamad, M., Muhammad, N., Yusoff, H. M., & Omar, N. (2016). The impact of social climate on life satisfaction of drug-abuse inmates in Malaysia prison. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 14(13), 9453–9464.

Auty, K. M., & Liebling, A. (2019). Exploring the relationship between prison social climate and reoffending. Justice Quarterly, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/07418825.2018.1538421

Awang, Z. (2015). SEM made simple : A gentle approach to learning Structural Equation Modelling. MPWS Rich Resources.

Awang, Z., Hui, L. S., & Zainudin, N. F. S. (2018). Pendekatan mudah SEM- Structural Equation Modelling. MPWS Rich Resources.

Bahagian Sumber Manusia. (2020). Jumlah Perjawatan Beruniform Dan Awam Jabatan Penjara Malaysia.

Baharudin, M. N., Mohamad, M., & Karim, F. (2020a). Developing a conceptual model of drug-abuse inmates personality, prison climate, social support, and maqasid shariah quality of life. International Journal of Arts and Social Science, 3(4), 234–242. www.ijassjournal.com

Baharudin, M. N., Mohamad, M., & Karim, F. (2020b). Drug-abuse inmates maqasid shariah quality of life: A conceptual paper. Humanities and Social Sciences Reviews, 8(3), 1285–1294. https://doi.org/10.18510/HSSR.2020.83131

Bakar, A. A., Osman, M. M., Bachok, S., & Ibrahim, M. (2016). Investigating rationales of Malaysia quality of life and wellbeing components and indicators. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 222(February 2020), 132–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.202

Barquín, J., Cano, M. Á., & Calvo, M. de los Á. (2019). Treatment, reintegration, and quality of prison life: Perception by inmates. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 63(13), 2291–2317. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19851669

Beijersbergen, K. A., Dirkzwager, A. J. E., van der Laan, P. H., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2014). A social building? Prison architecture and staff–prisoner relationships. Crime and Delinquency, 62(7), 1–32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011128714530657

Berg, M., Rossberg, J. I., Almvik, R., & Friis, S. (2009). Can a focused staff training programme improve the ward atmosphere and patient satisfaction in a forensic psychiatric hospital? A pilot study. Wiley Online Library, 23(1), 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00597.x

Bilik Gerakan Ibu Pejabat Penjara Malaysia. (2021). Statistik Kapasiti Penghuni Pada 26 Januari 2021.

Brayford, J., Cowe, F. B., & Deering, J. (2010). What Else Works? Creative Work with Offenders (1st ed.). Willan Publishing.

Brown, R. I., & Brown, I. (2005). The application of quality of life. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(10), 718–727. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2005.00740.x

Bryans, S. (2015). Handbook on Dynamic Security and Prison Intelligence. In P. Barzanò, S. Jayasekara, J. Jousif, & P. Meissner (Eds.), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (Criminal J). Publishing and libray section, United Nations office. https://www.unodc.org/documents/justice-and-prison-reform/UNODC_Handbook_on_Dynamic_Security_and_Prison_Intelligence.pdf

Carr, J. Z., Schmidt, A. M., Kevin Ford, J., & DeShon, R. P. (2003). Climate perceptions matter: A meta-analytic path analysis relating molar climate, cognitive and affective states, and individual level work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 605–619. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.605

Chemi, N., Abdullah, N., Singh, A., Fadzli, M., & Isa, M. (2014). A review of substance abuse research in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia, 69(August), 55–58.

Clare, L., Nelis, S. M., Quinn, C., Martyr, A., Henderson, C., Hindle, J. V., Jones, I. R., Jones, R. W., Knapp, M., Kopelman, M. D., Morris, R. G., Pickett, J. A., Rusted, J. M., Savitch, N. M., Thom, J. M., & Victor, C. R. (2014). Improving the experience of dementia and enhancing active life - living well with dementia: Study protocol for the IDEAL study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-014-0164-6

Curtis, J. R., Kross, E. K., & Stapleton, R. D. (2020). The importance of addressing advance care planning and decisions about do-not-resuscitate orders during novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of American Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4894

Day, A., Casey, S., Vess, J., & Huisy, G. (2011). Assessing the social climate of Australian prisons. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 427.

De Leo, D., Diekstra, R. F. W., Lonnqvist, J., Lonnqvist, J., Cleiren, M. H. P. D., Frisoni, G. B., Buono, M. Dello, Haltunen, A., Zucchetto, M., Rozzini, R., Grigoletto, F., & Sampaio-Faria, J. (1998). Leipad, an internationally applicable instrument to assess quality of life in the elderly. Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/08964289809596377

De Smet, S., De Donder, L., Ryan, D., Van Regenmortel, S., Brosens, D., & Vandevelde, S. (2017). Factors related to the quality of life of older prisoners. Quality of Life Research, 26(6), 1571–1585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-017-1506-8

Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with sex life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1177/0748175611422898

Diener, E., Inglehart, R., & Tay, L. (2013). Theory and validity of life satisfaction scales. Social Indicators Research, 112(3), 497–527. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-012-0076-y

Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2018). Advances and open questions in the science of subjective well-being. Collabra Psychol., 4(15), 1–78. https://doi.org/10.1525/collabra.115.Advances

Dollard, M. F., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Psychosocial safety climate as ap recursor to conducivework environments, psychological health problems, and employeee engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(3), 579–599. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X470690

Economic Planning Unit. (2021). Twelfth Malaysia Plan, 2021-2025. Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit (MAMPU). http://rmke12.epu.gov.my/about-us

Eifert, E. K., Hall, M., Smith, P. H., & Wideman, L. (2019). Quality of life as a mediator of leisure activity and perceived health among older women. Journal of Women and Aging, 31(3), 248–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/08952841.2018.1444937

Fazel, S., & Baillargeon, J. (2011). The health of prisoners. The Lancet, 377(9769), 956–965. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61053-7

Garrido, S., Méndez, I., & Abellán, J. M. (2013). Analysing the simultaneous relationship between life satisfaction and health-related quality of life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(6), 1813–1838. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-012-9411-x

Ghaheri, A., Shahrokhabadi, M. S., Zayeri, F., Maroufizadeh, S., & Karimi, M. (2016). Relationship among life satisfaction, anxiety and fertility quality of life in women. Journal of Semnan University of Medical Sciences, 17(4), 957–965.

Griffin, M. M., & Steinbrecher, T. D. (2013). Large-Scale Datasets in Special Education Research. In International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities (1st ed., Vol. 45). Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407760-7.00004-9

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2019). Multivariate Data Analysis (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119409137.ch4

Ibrahim, F., Nen, S., Sarnon, N., Alavi, K., Mohd Suhaimi Mohamad, W. S. W. S., & Zakaria, E. (2016). Ciri-ciri keusahawanan dalam kalangan banduan parol: Ke arah penyediaan modul kemahiran pengurusan keusahawanan di jabatan penjara Malaysia. E-Bangi : Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 11(1), 90–105.

Inanlou, M., Bahmani, B., Farhoudian, A., & Rafiee, F. (2020). Addiction recovery : A systematized review. Iran J Psychiatry, 15(2), 172–181.

Kashy, D. A., & Morash, M. (2021). Predictors of generativity and satisfaction with life in a sample of women offenders. Psychology, Crime & Law, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/1068316X.2021.1929981

Kearney, S. C., & Sellen, J. L. (2013). Motivating young people in prison to improve behaviour. Journal of Forensic Practice, 15(1), 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1108/14636641311299077

Khademi, N., Saeidi, S., Zangeneh, A., Saeidi, F., & Choobtashani, M. (2020). The relationship between life satisfaction and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Kermanshah West of Iran. Health and Social Care in the Community, 28(6), 2218–2224. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13034

Lafferty, L., Treloar, C., Butler, T., Guthrie, J., & Chambers, G. M. (2016). Unlocking dimensions of social capital in the prison setting. Health and Justice, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40352-016-0040-z

Langdon, P. E., Swift, A., & Budd, R. (2006). Social climate within secure inpatient services for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50(11), 828–836. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00847.x

Laudet, A. B., & White, W. L. (2008). Recovery capital as prospective predictor of sustained recovery, life satisfaction, and stress among former poly-substance users. Substance Use and Misuse, 43(1), 27–54. https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701681473

Lee, A. Y., Kim, S. Y., Kwon, H. J., & Park, S. A. (2021). Horticultural therapy program for mental health of prisoners: Case report. Integrative Medicine Research, 10(2), 100495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2020.100495

Leidenfrost, C. M., Calabrese, W., Schoelerman, R. M., Coggins, E., Ranney, M., Sinclair, S. J., & Antonius, D. (2016). Changes in psychological health and subjective well-being among incarcerated individuals with serious mental illness. Journal of Correctional Health Care, 22(1), 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078345815618200

Lindstedt, H., Söderlund, A., Stålenheim, G., & Sjödén, P. O. (2005). Personality traits as predictors of occupational performance and life satisfaction among mentally disordered offenders. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 59(5), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039480500320082

Lugo, M. (2016). Measuring organizational climate in prisons. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 32(4), 357–382. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043986216665528

Martin, T. M., Jefferson, A. M., & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2014). Sensing prison climates: Governance, survival, and transition. Focaal - Journal of Global and Historical Anthropology, 68, 3–17.

Martyr, A., Nelis, S. M., Quinn, C., Wu, Y. T., Lamont, R. A., Henderson, C., Clarke, R., Hindle, J. V., Thom, J. M., Jones, I. R., Morris, R. G., Rusted, J. M., Victor, C. R., & Clare, L. (2018). Living well with dementia: A systematic review and correlational meta-analysis of factors associated with quality of life, well-being and life satisfaction in people with dementia. Psychological Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720001713

Mohamad, M., & Ali, N. A. M. (2016). Quality of Life Maqasid Shariah Approach. Penerbit UniSZA.

Mohamad, M., Ali, N. A. M., Awang, Z., Omar, N., & Yusoff, H. M. (2016). Validating the measurement of maqasid syariah prison quality of life (MSPQOL) among drug abuse inmates. Proc. of the Fourth Intl. Conf. Advances in Social Science, Economics and Management Study- SEM 2016, 3(2), 31–35. https://doi.org/10.15224/978-1-63248-094-1-55

Mohamad, M., Ali, N. A. M., Mohamad, N., Chik, W. M. Y. W., Muhammad, N., & Karim, F. (2014). Kualiti Hidup Pendekatan Maqasid Syariah. Penerbit UnisZA.

Mohamad, M., Awang, Z., & Ali, N. A. M. (2017). Validating the maqasid shariah prison quality of life (MSPQoL) among drug-abuse inmates using confirmatory factor analysis. International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 15(24), 91–103.

Molleman, T., & van der Broek, T. C. (2014). Understanding the links between perceived prison conditions and prison staff. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 42(1), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2014.01.001

Muller, A. E. (2020). A systematic review of quality of life assessments of offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X19881929

Nawaz, N., & Usman, K. (2019). Moderating role of internal locus of control on relationship of life satisfaction and quality of life among diabetes type-II patients. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 13(2), 51–62.

Nazira, S., Mohammad Rahim, Kamaluddin Wan Shahrazad, W. S. &, & Rozainee, K. (2019). Psikologi penagihan dadah: Satu tinjauan literatur. Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 33(February), 1–9. https://doi.org/.1037//0033-2909.I26.1.78

Øiestad, E. L., Krabseth, H. M., Huestis, M. A., Skulberg, A., & Vindenes, V. (2019). Interpreting oral fluid drug results in prisoners: Monitoring current drug intake and detection times for drugs self-administered prior to detention. Forensic Toxicology, 37(1), 59–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11419-018-0434-9

Ooi, D. S. Q., Loke, K. Y., Ho, C. W. L., Lim, Y. Y., Tay, V., Karuppiah, V., Sng, A. A., Lai, L. Y., Lee, Y. S., & Griva, K. (2020). Self and parent-proxy rated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in youth with obesity: Are parents good surrogates? Quality of Life Research, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02472-y

Parker, C. P., Baltes, B. B., Young, S. A., Huff, J. W., Altmann, R. A., Lacost, H. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2003). Relationships between psychological climate perceptions and work outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Organizational Behavior J. Organiz. Behav, 24(4), 389–416. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.198

Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The Satisfaction With Life Scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(2), 137–152. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760701756946

Pedro, E. de M., Alves, H., & Leitão, J. (2018). Does the quality of academic life mediate the satisfaction, loyalty and recommendation of HEI students? International Journal of Educational Management, 32(5), 881–900. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEM-04-2017-0086

Robertson, S., Cooper, C., Hoe, J., Lord, K., Rapaport, P., Marston, L., Cousins, S., Lyketsos, C. G., & Livingston, G. (2020). Comparing proxy rated quality of life of people living with dementia in care homes. Psychological Medicine, 50(1), 86–95. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718003987

Ross, M. W., Diamond, P. M., Liebling, A., & Saylor, W. G. (2008). Measurement of prison social climate: A comparison of an inmate measure in England and the USA. Punishment and Society, 10(4), 447–474. https://doi.org/10.1177/1462474508095320

Røssberg, J. I., & Friis, S. (2003). Do the spontaneity and anger and aggression subscales of the ward atmosphere scale form homogeneous dimensions? A cross-sectional study of 54 wards for psychotic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 107(2), 118–123. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.02082.x

Saat, R. A., Ibrahim, I., Mohd Salleh, N. I., & Zuber, N. A. (2019). Maqasid syariah dalam urus tadbir. Proceedings of the International Conference on Islamic Civilization and Technology Management, 1–9.

Schalast, N., Redies, M., & Collins, M. (2008). EssenCES, a short questionnaire for assessing the social climate of forensic psychiatric wards. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 18, 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm

Shkeer, A. S., & Awang, Z. (2019). Exploring the Items for Measuring the Marketing Information System Construct: an Exploratory Factor Analysis. International Review of Management and Marketing, 9(6), 87–97. https://doi.org/10.32479/irmm.8622

Skaggs, B. G., & Barron, C. R. (2006). Searching for meaning in negative events: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(5), 559–570.

Skar, M., Lokdam, N., Liebling, A., Muriqi, A., Haliti, D., Rushiti, F., & Modvig, J. (2019). Quality of prison life, violence and mental health in Dubrava prison. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 15(3), 262–272. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPH-10-2017-0047

Skowroński, B., & Talik, E. (2020). Metaphysical quality of life and its correlates in prisoners. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work, 39(4), 372–390. https://doi.org/10.1080/15426432.2020.1804514

Smith, B. W., Maume, M. O., & Reiner, S. M. (1997). Perceptions of social climate in a juvenile correctional institution. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 25(1–2), 143–162. https://doi.org/10.1300/J076v25n01_10

Tai, Y. M., & Gau, S. S. F. (2017). Depression and quality of life mediating the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicidality in military recruits. Military Medicine, 182(11), e1912–e1919. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00394

Tov, W., & Diener, E. (2003). Culture and subjective well-being. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and well-being (pp. 9–41). Springe.

Ulrich, C., O’Donnell, P., Taylor, C., … A. F.-S. science &, & 2007, U. (2007). Ethical climate, ethics stress, and the job satisfaction of nurses and social workers in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 65(8), 1708–1719. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953607003255

Valdez, K. G. P., & Agustin, N. A. J. (2020). Urban quality of life: Instrument reliability and validity. Millennium Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 28–43. https://doi.org/10.47340/mjhss.v1i3.3.2020

van Ginneken, E. F. J. C., Palmen, H., Bosma, A. Q., & Sentse, M. (2019). Bearing the weight of imprisonment: The relationship between prison climate and well-being. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 46(10), 1385–1404. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854819867373

Veenhoven, R. (2009). How do we assess how happy we are? Tenets, implications and tenability of three theories. In A. K. Dutt & B. Radcliff (Eds.), Happiness, Economics and Politics: Towards a Multi-Disciplinary Approach (pp. 45–69). https://doi.org/10.4337/9781849801973.00009

von Humboldt, S., Leal, I., Santos, S., & Niculescu, G. (2013). Aging with diabetes: Sense of coherence and satisfaction with life in European older adults with type 2 diabetes. Review of European Studies, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.5539/res.v5n1p1

Williams, L. S., Green, E. L. W., & Chernoff, W. A. (2019). “There’s more to it than just a box check”: Measuring prison climate in three correctional facilities. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 63(8), 1354–1383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X18821090

Yuh, J., & Choi, S. (2017). Sources of social support, job satisfaction, and quality of life among childcare teachers. Social Science Journal, 54(4), 450–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2017.08.002

Published
2021-11-13
How to Cite
Baharudin, M. N., Mahadzirah Mohamad, & Fazida Karim. (2021). Mediating Role of Quality of Life in the Relationship between Prison Climate and Life Satisfaction . The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP), 2(3), 41-48. https://doi.org/10.37231/jmtp.2020.2.3.175