Principals’ Contextual Leadership on Teachers’Organizational Commitment: Teacher Empowerment and Teachers’ Workplace Well-Being as a Serial Mediator

  • Tengku Faekah Tengku Ariffin School of Education, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia
  • Mohammad Noman EDD Department, Graduate College, Wenzhou-Kean University, Wenzhou, China.
Keywords: Empowerment, Wellbeing, Commitment, Contextual Leadership, Mediation, School


As integration of Theory Z and Fiedler’s Contingency Theory in leadership, this study proposed a new model to reveal the underlying mechanism of psychological elements such as leadership practices, teacher empowerment, and teachers’ workplace wellbeing towards teachers’ organizational commitment (TOC). Despite the relevance of contextual leadership  practices (CLP) and teachers’ emotion in school effectiveness, little is known about the implication, specifically on TOC. Data were gathered from a sample of 371 secondary school teachers selected by multi-stage random sampling method from one of the states in Malaysia and structural equation modelling was employed to assess the proposed model. Results using Structural Equation Modeling confirmed that these psychological elements directly and positively influence TOC. Additionally,  teacher empowerment (TE) and teachers’ workplace wellbeing (TWW) as serial mediators significantly explained the indirect relationship sequentially. Findings provide an evidence of how a novel and comprehensive model can be practiced to enhance TOC through a serial mechanism as proposed by the integration of Theory Z and Fiedler’s Contingency Theory in leadership.


Download data is not yet available.


Abrol, M., Bansal, K., & Kishore, N. (2022). Exploring the Relationship Between Teachers Well Being and Professional Commitment. ECS Transactions, 107(1), 4703.

Acton, R., & Glasgow, P. (2015). Teacher wellbeing in neoliberal contexts: A review of the literature. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40(8), 99-114.

Akdemir, Ö. A., & Ayik, A. (2017). The impact of distributed leadership behaviors of school principals on the organizational commitment of teachers. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(n12B), 18-26.

Al-Mahdy, Y. F. H., Emam, M. M., & Hallinger, P. (2018). Assessing the contribution of principal instructional leadership and collective teacher efficacy to teacher commitment in Oman. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 69(1), 191-201.

Amos Development Corporation. (2012). User-defned estimands. Amos Development Corporation.

Awang, Z., Hui, L. S., Zainudin, N. F. S. (2018). Pendekatan Mudah SEM Structural Equation Modelling, MPWS Rich Resources Sdn. Bhd.

Ayala, E. M. V. (2018). Examining the relationship between the emotional intelligence of principals as perceived by teachers and teachers’ organizational commitment. (Doctoral dissertation, Our Lady of the Lake University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Baba, C., Kearns, A., McIntosh, E., Tannahill, C., & Lewsey, J. (2016). Is empowerment a route to improving mental health and wellbeing in an urban regeneration (UR) context?. Urban studies, 54(7), 1619-1637.

Batugal, M. L. C., & Tindowen, D. J. C. (2019). Influence of Organizational Culture on Teachers' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Catholic Higher Education Institutions in the Philippines. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(11), 2432-2443. http://DOI:10.13189/ujer.2019.071121

Ben-Peretz, M., & Flores, M. A. (2018). Tensions and paradoxes in teaching: implications for teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2), 202-213.

Berkovich, I., & Bogler, R. (2020). Conceptualising the mediating paths linking effective school leadership to teachers' organisational commitment. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 1741143220907321.

Bibi, A., Khalid, M. A., & Hussain, A. (2019). Perceived organizational support and organizational commitment among special education teachers in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management.

Bryson, A., Stokes, L., & Wilkinson, D. (2018). Are Schools Different? Well-being and Commitment among Staff in Schools and Elsewhere. IZA Discussion Paper, No 14456.

Brezicha, K. F., Ikoma, S., Park, H., & LeTendre, G. K. (2019). The ownership perception gap: exploring teacher job satisfaction and its relationship to teachers' and principals' perception of decision-making opportunities. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 23(4), 428-456.

Bush, T., Hamid, S. A., Ng, A., & Kaparou, M. (2018). School leadership theories and the Malaysia Education Blueprint. International Journal of Educational Management.

Bush, T., Ng, A., Wei, K. T., Josephine, C., Glover, D., & Lee, D. (2019). Dasar Pendidikan di Malaysia: Cabaran Pelaksanaan dan Rundingan Dasar [Education Policy in Malaysia: Challenges of Policy Implementation and Negotiation]. Singapore: The Head Foundation, Human Capital & Education for Asian Development. conference/Policy-Brief-No-7-BM.pdf

Fiedler, F. E. (1978). The contingency model and the dynamics of the leadership process. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 11, 59-112. Academic Press.

Fielder, F. E. (1967). Contingency model. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness in Basic Studies in Social Psychology, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Fook, C. Y., Rosidih, R., & Keang, K. M. The relationship between the practices of leadership style and teacher empowerment of headmasters in the primary schools. Journal of Global Business and Social Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 56-68.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Gao, X., Xia, J., Shen, J., & Ma, X. (2018). A comparison between US and Chinese principal decision-making power: A measurement perspective based on PISA 2015. Chinese Education & Society, 51(5), 410-425.

Gordon, S. D. (2018). Leadership's Role in Teachers’ Commitment and Retention: A Case Study Analysis. (Doctoral Dissertation, Delaware State University).

Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B.J., & Anderson, R.E. (2014). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th ed.). Pearson Education Limited.

Hayes, A. F., Preacher, K. J., & Myers, T. A. (2011). Mediation and the estimation of indirect effects in political communication research. Sourcebook for political communication research: Methods, measures, and analytical techniques, 23(1), 434-465.

Ibrahim, A., Sulaiman, W. S. W., & Halim, F. W. (2019). Work Intention as Mediator in the Relationship between Work Passion and Organizational Commitment among Teachers in Malaysia. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(10), 102-110. http://DOI:10.35940/ijrte.B1017.0982S1019

Jan, H. (2017). Teacher of 21st century: Characteristics and development. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(9), 50-54.

Jani, J., Muszali, R., Nathan, S., & Abdullah, M. S. (2018). Blended learning approach using frog VLE platform towards students' achievement in teaching games for understanding. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 10(5), 1130-1141.

Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling (3rd ed.). The Guildford Press. New York.

Kline, R.B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modelling (4th ed.). The Guildford Press. New York.

Lakkala, S., Galkienė, A., Navaitienė, J., Cierpiałowska, T., Tomecek, S., & Uusiautti, S. (2021). Teachers supporting students in collaborative ways—An analysis of collaborative work creating supportive learning environments for every student in a school: Cases from Austria, Finland, Lithuania, and Poland. Sustainability, 13(5), 2804.

Leithwood, K. (2021). A review of evidence about equitable school leadership. Education Sciences, 11(8), 377.

Leithwood, K. (2017). The Ontario leadership framework: Successful school leadership practices and personal leadership resources. In How school leaders contribute to student success (pp. 31-43). Springer, Cham.

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., &Hopkins, D. (2019). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School Leadership & Management, 1–18.

Lim, S. C., & Thien, L. M. (2020). Chinese Academic Leadership from the Perspective of Confucian Virtues and its Effects on Teacher Commitment. International Online Journal of Educational Leadership, 4(1), 37-51.

Mart, C. T. (2013). A passionate teacher: Teacher commitment and dedication to student learning. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, 2(1), 437-442.

Mohmmed, A. O., Khidhir, B. A., Nazeer, A., & Vijayan, V. J. (2020). Emergency remote teaching during Coronavirus pandemic: the current trend and future directive at Middle East College Oman. Innovative Infrastructure Solutions, 5(3), 1-11.

Moran EdD, K., & Larwin PhD, K. H. (2017). Building administrator’s facilitation of teacher leadership:Moderators associated with teachers’ reported levels of empowerment. Journal of Organizational & Educational Leadership, 3(1), 2.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14(2), 224-247.

Noman M, Awang Hashim R and Shaik Abdullah S (2018) Contextual leadership practices: The case of a successful school principal in Malaysia. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(3), 474-490.

Noman, M., & Gurr, D. (2020). Contextual Leadership and Culture in Education. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. http://DOI:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.595

Oc, B. (2018). Contextual leadership: A systematic review of how contextual factors shape leadership and its outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(1), 218-235.

Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory Z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge (Vol. 1081). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Palta, A. (2019). Examination of Teachers' Perceptions about Servant Leadership and Organizational Commitment. International Education Studies, 12(4), 36-41.

Paulsen, J. M. (2018). Conceptualizing Professional Commitment-Based School Strategy. Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE), 2(2-3), 72-85.

Perera, L. D. H., & Asadullah, M. N. (2019). Mind the gap: What explains Malaysia's underperformance in Pisa? International Journal of Educational Development, 65, 254-263.

Pollari, P., Salo, O., & Koski, K. (2018). In Teachers We Trust-the Finnish Way to Teach and Learn. Inquiry in Education, 10(1), 4.

Salkind, N.J. (ed.). 2012. Exploring research. (8th Edition). New York, NY: Pearson

Setyaningsih, S., & Sunaryo, W. (2021). Optimizing Transformational Leadership Strengthening, Self Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction to Increase Teacher Commitment. International Journal of Instruction, 14(4), 427-438.

Schleicher, A. (2019). PISA 2018: Insights and Interpretations. OECD Publishing

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons

Short, P. M., & Rinehart, J. S. (1992). School participant empowerment scale: Assessment of level of empowerment within the school environment. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 951-960

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465.

Suleman, Q., Syed, M. A., Shehzad, S., Hussain, I., Khattak, A. Z., Khan, I. U., ... & Khan, I. (2021). Leadership empowering behaviour as a predictor of employees’ psychological well-being: Evidence from a cross-sectional study among secondary school teachers in Kohat Division, Pakistan. Plos one, 16(7), e0254576.

Tadesse, E. F. (2019). Teachers' organizational commitment at secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. International Journal of Education and Research, 7(4), 55-68.

Truong, T.D., & Hallinger, P. (2015). Exploring cultural context and school leadership: Conceptualizing an indigenous model of có uy school leadership in Vietnam. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 20(5), 539-561.

Veeriah, J., & Siaw, Y. L. (2017). The impact of school culture on teachers' organizational commitment in primary cluster schools in Selangor. Educational Leader (Pemimpin Pendidikan), 5, 1-18.

Vrhovnik, T., Mari, M., Žnidarši, J., & Jordan, G. (2018). The influence of teachers' perceptions of school leaders' empowering behaviours on the dimensions of psychological empowerment. Organizacija, 51(2), 112-120.

Warr, P., & Nielsen, K. (2018). Well-being and work performance. Diener E, Oishi S. Tay L, editors. Handbook of well-being. [Internet] Salt Lake City, UT: DEFPublishers.

Xiu, Qi, Peng Liu, Hao Yao, and Lili Liu. "The relationship between distributed leadership and teacher commitment to change: the mediating roles of professional learning communities and job satisfaction." Asia Pacific Education Review (2022): 1-13.

Yusoff, S. M., & Tengku-Ariffin, T. F. (2020). Looking after teacher well-being : Does teacher empowerment matter? Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 8(4), 43-56.

Yusoff, S. M., Ariffin, T. F. T., & Zalli, M. M. M. (2020). School Participation Empowerment Scale (SPES) adaptation for teachers in Malaysia. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(5), 1821-1830 http://DOI:10.13189/ujer.2020.080518

Yusoff, S. M., & Tengku Ariffin, T. F. (2021). Development and Validation of Contextual Leadership Instrument for Principals in Malaysian School Context (MyCLIPS). Leadership and Policy in Schools, 1-16.

Yusof, Y. Z., Awang-Hashim, R., & Tengku-Ariffin, T. F. (2015). Modeling the

relationship between welfare, youthfulness, and wellbeing in the workplace with collective teacher efficacy. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 12, 177-204.

Zacharo, K., Marios, K., & Dimitra, P. (2018). Connection of teachers' organizational commitment and transformational leadership. A case study from Greece. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research, 17(8), 89-106.

How to Cite
Yusoff, S. M., Tengku Faekah Tengku Ariffin, & Mohammad Noman. (2022). Principals’ Contextual Leadership on Teachers’Organizational Commitment: Teacher Empowerment and Teachers’ Workplace Well-Being as a Serial Mediator. The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP), 3(3), 10-19.
Marketing & Management