The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp <p>The Journal of Management Theory and Practice is an online international journal for publishing high quality peer reviewed papers in the field of theoretical and applied management areas. The main objective of this journal is to exchange ideas about management sciences, marketing and business research and so forth. The subject areas include, but are not limited to project management, business strategy and policy, finance and accounting, tourism management, risk management and takaful, entrepreneurship, insurance, applied economics, and islamic finance.</p> Penerbit Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin en-US The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) 2716-7089 Supporting the Policy Implementation Performance of Public Primary School Leaders in Malaysia: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of Public Leadership https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/130 <p>Policy implementation requires the act of translating the goals and objectives of policy into actions. Policy implementation is a difficult process because how policy actors and implementers act on the policy on a large scale may decide whether it succeeds or fails. There is a growing recognition that policies do not succeed or fail on their own, but instead due to a lack of leadership qualities in policy implementation. The study aims to develop and validate the instrument for measuring the public leadership construct of school leaders in Malaysia. The instrument was adapted from the previous study and modified to suit the current study. The study also added ten new items to complement the original instrument of public leadership initiated by Tummers and Knies (2016). The target population is school leaders in the national-type primary schools in Malaysia. A simple random sampling method was utilized to select a random sample of 381 participants from the sampling frame of eligible school leaders in the country. Content validity and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the instrument before the confirmatory factor analysis. The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) procedure confirmed the existence of four sub-constructs of the public leadership construct that are accountability leadership, rule-following/lawfulness leadership, political loyal leadership, and network governance leadership. The CFA process has deleted four items due to poor factor loading (less than 0.6). The fitness indexes for all fit categories have achieved the required level of a model fit. Meanwhile, the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Composite Reliability (CR), which reflect the convergent validity and construct reliability, respectively, have also achieved the required level of a model fit. Hence, the revised instrument for measuring the public leadership construct of school leaders in Malaysia is valid and reliable for use to determine the policy implementation performance of the public primary school leaders in Malaysia.</p> Noryati Alias Zainudin Awang Habsah Muda Nurul Hijja Mazlan Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-10-05 2021-10-05 1 7 10.37231/jmtp.0..0.130 A Sociodemographic Characteristics on Family Satisfaction with Care in Adult Critical Care Public Hospital Terengganu, Malaysia https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/121 <p>Background family satisfaction care and decision making as important&nbsp; &nbsp;indicator to evaluate the quality of care in intensive care unit. The family satisfaction in the ICU questionnaire (FS-ICU 33 Malay languages) is a well-established tool to assess satisfaction in such settings. ICU admission has many implications, for example, the effects on critically ill patients, the ICU setting, the role of health care staff and family members, communication, psychology of families and physical health. Thus, this study we tested the hypothesis that&nbsp;examined effects of gender, age, relationship, marital status, education level, race and occupation can attribute on family satisfaction care and&nbsp;decision making. Two hundred and eight respondents selected from the Public Hospital Terengganu completed the Family satisfaction ICU Malay languages questionnaire (FS-ICU-M). A quantitative, cross-sectional study and purposive sampling was conducted from 10 October 2018 to January 2020. In this study conclude that the ICU-Care satisfaction score was significantly associated with age, education level, occupation, and the relationship of the respondents (p&lt;0.05), but not associated with the gender, race, and marital status of the respondents. Moreover, the ICU-DM satisfaction score was significantly associated with age, marital status, occupation, and the relationship of the respondents (p&lt;0.05), but not associated with the gender, race, and education level of the respondents.</p> Wan Nor Aliza Wan Abdul Rahman Abdul Karim Othman Yuzana Mohd Yusop Hasnah Zani Rohimah Ismail Zainab Mohd Shafie Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 8 16 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.121 The Challenges of Student Satisfaction and Student Loyalty in Malaysian University https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/125 <p>The approach to building university image deals with student trust, student satisfaction, and student loyalty. However, few studies are available on university image context and its role on student loyalty. University image is considered a vital component of the educational sectors' success in recent years. With the current increase in public and private universities across Malaysia, the academic industry has become increasingly competitive. The circumstance necessitates Universities to focus their energies on creating a positive corporate image by increasing student loyalty. Trust and satisfaction play an essential role in order to achieve and maintain student loyalty. The research also reviewed the relationship between student trust and student satisfaction to establish their relationship with student loyalty.</p> Mohammed Shuaibu Badeggi Habsah Muda Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 23 26 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.125 Does Work Interest and Preference Affect Workers’ Normative Commitment? https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/136 <p>The position that a dedicated and loyal worker is an asset and a resource component for business sustainability is germane. However, reports have shown that in Nigeria and most developing climes, the obligation by workers to stay and add value in their organization is as fragile as thin ice. Also, there is limited data analysis of skill needs to measure work interest and preference of workers in higher institutions. Thus, this paper determined if job-fit dimensions (work interest, work preference) affect workers’ normative commitment. By applying a cross-sectional survey research design, collated data from 377 regular non-academic staff from six selected private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria, was obtained through a multi-stage random sampling technique. The content, criterion, construct validity, and test-retest reliability tested the adapted questionnaire before administration. Multiple regression analysis results revealed that job-fit dimensions had a positive significant combined effect on workers’ normative commitment (<em>R</em>&nbsp;= 0.558,&nbsp;<em>F </em>(2, 374) = 84.622,&nbsp;<em>Adj. R<sup>2</sup></em>&nbsp;= 0.308,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05). Management and HR practitioners should be more conscious of the hiring process, promote independence and flexibility for workers' development, training, prospects for collaboration, and a sense of connectedness with the job as a measure of enhancing loyalty.</p> Jones Umukoro Damola Adediji Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 27 37 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.136 Mediating Role of Social Media on Online Shopping Behavior: Smart-PLS Approach https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/154 <p>Consumer behaviour and decisions to buy from online retailers were increasingly influenced and changed by social media. Because of the never-ending advances in information technology, online shopping is becoming more popular. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the mediating effect of social media on online shopping behaviour in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was used, and a simple random sampling procedure was used to select three hundred and eighty (380) online shoppers. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling –Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS). The analysis revealed that advertising had an insignificant effect on online shopping behaviour with a path coefficient (Beta value = 0.11; t value = 1.743; p= 0.082). There is positive relationship between advertising and social media effect (Beta value = 0.787; t value = 34.556; p= 0.000). the proposed relationship between social media effect and Online Shopping Behaviour (=0.378; t-value =5.735; p =0.000) is supported. In contrast, the projected relationship between Trust and Online Shopping Behaviour is (=0.466; t-value =12.817; p =0.000). Lastly, the result revealed there is a strong correlation between Trust and Online Shopping Behaviour.</p> Qaribu Yahaya Nasidi Muhamad Fazil Ahmad Jamila Mohammed Dahiru Murtala Garba Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 49 55 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.154 Examining the Factors Impacting Consumer Online Purchasing Behavior During COVID-19 in Klang Valley https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/156 <p>The initial appearance of Covid-19 has changed the lives of billions of people in the world and has disrupted consumers purchasing behavior whether online or offline shopping.&nbsp; The internet has given consumer empowerment where online shopping has been adopted by consumers globally. Customers can stay at home and shop with payment and get home delivery. This research aims to examine the factors impacting consumer online purchasing behavior in the retail business environment during Covid-19 in Klang Valley. This study focuses on five variables which are attitude, trustworthiness, security and safety, loyalty and marketing information and how these variables impact consumer online purchasing behavior during crisis period utilizing the Reasoned Action Approach Theory and Technology Acceptance Model Theory. The proposed research is designed based on quantitative model utilizing a questionnaire survey with a sample size of 405 online respondents.&nbsp; The result can provide knowledge about consumer online purchasing behavior and all five variables are supporting the research findings especially marketing information on the website topping the list of the variables. Managerial and theoretical implications are important for businesses to adopt online channels and expand globally using the available technology especially social media channels.&nbsp; The research presents several considerations towards consumer online purchasing behavior and future research should study other variables using different methodologies such as exploratory nature with interviews to understand the consumer behavior as consumer behave differently in different circumstances during pandemic.&nbsp;</p> Irene Chew Vincent Wee Eng Kim Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 56 73 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.156 The Internal Circumstances that Encourage Corporate Entrepreneurship in the Accounting Profession in the Northern Region of Malaysia https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/158 <p>The word "corporate entrepreneurship" refers to entrepreneurial activity within the organization. Corporate entrepreneurship is valuable to the degree that it is used as a tactic to engage in a continuous process of entrepreneurial actions to obtain a strategic edge. In today's competitive economy, a lack of entrepreneurial behavior can be a blueprint for failure. With that in mind, this research, through an examination of the literature and quantitative empirical analysis, focused on the relationships between corporate's internal elements and the context of corporate entrepreneurship in the accounting profession. Furthermore, the study also determines the most crucial corporate's internal element that impacting corporate entrepreneurship in the accounting profession. All criteria were met to ensure that the research was conducted according to ethical research principles. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire selected from Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI) 48 Likert-style, where 553 respondents from the accounting profession participate in the survey. The study found that positive and significant relationships exist between all corporate's internal elements: organization structure, rewards and recognition policies, time and resources available, management support, and organizational culture. This study provides guidance and insight to the accounting profession into fostering entrepreneurial success and the impact of the five corporate's internal elements in achieving sustainability and a competitive edge. It is recommended that further research be undertaken to examine the interaction between external factors which have a certain degree of effect. More precisely, the models should examine the relationship between internal and external factors which have the most significant influence in the sense of corporate entrepreneurship.</p> Hooi Kun Lee Gary Tan Peng Liang Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 74 81 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.158 Analysis Work Pressure of Hospital Employees During the Covid-19 Pandemic Study of Hospitals in Indonesia https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/150 <p>The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had a very significant impact on every area of ​​the organization, especially the health sector, especially hospitals. One of the impacts experienced is the work pressure felt by hospital employees. This study aims to analyze the work pressure experienced by hospital employees during the covid-19 pandemic which was obtained from the type of work and stressor factors that influenced it. This type of research was quantitative with a cross sectional approach. The sample of this study was 120 employees at Hospital "X" in Indonesia. The sampling technique is probability sampling with random sampling method. Univariate analysis test was used to see the distribution of frequency and percentage of each variable and bivariate analysis with chi-square test to determine the relationship between variables (p value &lt;0.05). It was found that the type of employee's work was significantly related to the employee's work pressure. Then an analysis of the level of work pressure is carried out with the influencing work pressure stressor. Based on the Spearman Correlation Test, a correlation value of 0.589 with a sig value of 0.000 means that the sig value is smaller than 0.05 (0.000 &lt;0.05) indicating that there is a significant effect between stressor and work pressure at Hospital "X". The cause of high work pressure from this type of work is the demands of the organization in relation to the high role of tasks, especially medical personnel, which increases during the pandemic. Then the stressor factors that influence are role overload, role conflict and role ambiguity caused by the demands of the duties and roles of employees, poor communication, and lack of direct guidance from the leadership on the tasks and regulations given.</p> Suryono Bambang Wiseno Fannidya Hamdani Zeho Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 82 88 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.150 The Role of Risk Management, Sustainability Disclosure Practices, and Islamic Finance in Nigeria Business Environment https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/160 <p>The Nigerian business environment is currently beclouded with various kinds of risks, fear, and uncertainty that culminate into the collapsing of so many businesses and the relocation of several multinational and local firms to other countries. The business and the environment are in a social contract that leaves them with both opportunities and threats hence the business cannot take place in a vacuum. The interconnectivity between businesses and their environment is that of mutuality. Mutual in the sense that the business influences its environment and the environment as well guarantees the legitimacy of the business considering the interest of all relevant stakeholders. That is, a business is influenced by its environment of operation such that its success depends on the ability to adapt to its immediate and entire environment to make the environment of businesses favorable. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore conceptually the Nigerian Business Environment (NBE) considering the roles of risk management, sustainability disclosure practices, and Islamic finance. The method adopted by the study is the review of past investigations to gain insight into the NBE. Based on the insight from extant literature and in consonance with assumptions of legitimacy theory, the study concludes that risk management, sustainability disclosure practices, and Islamic finance promote the NBE. The study added to existing literature looking at the NBE from the present perspective (i.e. risk management, sustainability disclosure practices and Islamic finance). The study has implications for the government and policy-makers, companies, the business community, and other stakeholders in terms of creating a conducive business environment in Nigeria through the provision of infrastructure, effective corporate governance mechanisms, good stakeholder management.</p> Ibraheem Alani AbdulKareem Moses Elaigwu Ahmodu-Tijani Ismail Shola Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-28 2021-11-28 89 96 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.160 The Impact of Training & Development and Communication on Organizational Commitment on Bangladeshi Commercial Banks https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/142 <p>Employees are the heart of an organization as they are the weapons that propel the organization towards its goal. However, to superintend and build them as competent, committed in the long run, it is challenging to experience supportive communication, fair bonding, and more clarity regarding the organization's goal and responsibility. Thus, this research intends to examine the impact of training &amp; development and communication on organizational commitment based on the private bank employees of Bangladesh, especially on the Chattogram division.Through simple random sampling method, the questionnaire was sent to 200 bank employees and&nbsp; a total of 153 responses were perfectly derived as the sample size (Krejcie &amp; Morgan, 1970). The study is analyzed through quantitative analysis and were tested in the statistical software SPSS (version 22). The findings show the significant relationship of training &amp; development and communication that are positively related to organizational commitment. The study suggests that commercial banks should introduce proper training &amp; development measurements that will clarify work activities, objectives, and a supportive communication system that can defend critical issues and relationships in the organization.</p> Umme Kulsum Dipa Nishat Taslin Mohona Jayashree Dey Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-30 2021-11-30 102 109 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.142 Cultural Differences in Interaction Goals between Malaysia-China Business Negotiations https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/162 <p>As the world is getting more globalized due to digital world, cross-cultural business negotiation is getting more in demand and challenging compared to those days where most business involved mostly in domestic business negotiations. With such situations and environments, cultural intelligence is important to be learned. As many Chinese and Malaysian companies seeking the role as importer-exporter, international business negotiation skills and cultural awareness are much needed skills to meet the interaction goals of both parties. A lack of cultural awareness will lead to miscommunication and rejection from the other party during negotiations. The participants in this studies involve Chinese and Malaysians who are involved in real negotiation world. This paper used GLOBE model to compare the cultural dimensions between Malaysians and Chinese business negotiators. Questionnaires were sent by emails and through WeChat Apps to the participants who are based in China and Malaysia. Based on analysis, we found that between Chinese and Malaysian business negotiators, cultural norms influence the interaction goals between the two groups. As to the future research, we suggest that future research be directed towards developing theories and also focus on the application of GLOBE model in different research fields across different cultures, such as halal business management, digital marketing and business entrepreneurship. This study has contributed in enriching the knowledge on international business negotiations between Malaysia and China business literature context. On practical implication, this study has strengthen the negotiators’ knowledge on cultural norms of both Malaysians and Chinese in order to build better relationships with their business partners</p> Soo Hoo Pin Lick Hassan Abu Bakar Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 116 121 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.162 Challenges of Human Resource Management in Palestine https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/122 <p>The study investigated the challenges faced by the Palestinian Authority Institutions (PNA) in their practice of Human Resource Management. It adopted a qualitative approach based on a review of relevant literature to find out the major challenges handicapping the efforts to improve HRM in the West Bank in Palestine. The study reflected that with a specific focus on Palestine, the daily practice of HRM is a real challenge especially under the Israeli occupation and the different strategies Israel employs to destroy any improvement plans. The study showed that in the era of global technology, the Palestinian National Authority and its organisations in the West Bank are facing both internal and external challenges, namely the low organisational position of the management of human resources and its confinement to basic functions. In addition, the Procedural aspects, lack of planning and developmental aspects, and limitation of their practice in routine matters related to employment, calculation of salaries and dues, as well as follow-up and permits which constitute a significant challenge. Moreover, the external challenges include the Israeli occupation, which has a major role in these challenges as the occupation prevents public employees of different positions and deputies from reaching their workplaces by dividing the cities of Palestine, military checkpoints, and frequent arrests of ministers and legislators.</p> Md. Faruk Abdullah Shaban Jamal Ayyat Bahyah Binti Abdul Halim Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 17 22 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.122 Foreign Remittances, Good Governance and Human Development in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from FMOLS and DOLS https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/151 <p>Even though some progress has been recorded in terms of GDP growth in Sub-Saharan Africa, still the region has high level of extreme poverty, income inequality, insecurity, consequently low human development. This study examined the effect of foreign remittances and governance on human development for 20 countries of sub-Saharan Africa, using data from 1996 to 2019. The study used FMOLS and DOLS methods to estimates the long run coefficients. All the variables are I(1), have cross section dependency and cointegrated. The results revealed that foreign remittances and governance promote long run human development in sub-Saharan Africa. The results also show that inflation, population growth and military expenditures found to have negative long run effect on human development, while financial development have positive long run effect on human development in sub-Saharan Africa. &nbsp;Therefore, to promote human development, policies that will attract and encourage sending remittances through official channel should be put in place, especially related to the cost of sending remittances to sub-Saharan Africa. Also, policies to strengthen institutions and provide quality regulatory and legal framework for equitable distribution of resources to reduce poverty, and the cost of doing business, thereby promoting business activities, human capital development, consequently higher human development.</p> Kabiru Kamalu Wan Hakimah Binti Wan Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 38 48 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.151 Comparison between Will and Trust: A Conceptual Review https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/161 <p>The growth of unclaimed inheritance in Malaysia is an issue since the independence of Malaysia. Inheritance planning or Estate planning can be defined as the process of determining how one’s property should be distributed to meet the deceased’ wish. There are two popular estate planning instruments namely will and trust. This study aims to explore the differences of will and trust as part of estate planning instruments. The concept of will and trust, as well as the comparison and barriers of estate planning have been discussed in depth. This study will provide more insights to people for better-informed decision in their estate-planning arrangements by understanding the key differences between these two estate planning instruments.</p> Kuah Yoke Chin Wei Chooi Yi Nurul Afidah Mohamad Yusof Zuriawati Zakaria Zam Zuriyati Mohamad Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 97 101 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.161 The Nexus of Selected Macroeconomic Variables toward Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from Indonesia https://journal.unisza.edu.my/jmtp/index.php/jmtp/article/view/184 <p>Foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows are a major instrument of economic growth in developing countries. Indonesia is one of the developing countries that has received more FDI with macroeconomic stability. The macroeconomic stability indicator is seen as an important factor in driving economic growth and attracting FDI inflows in Indonesia. Therefore, this study examines the relationship of selected macroeconomic variables toward the FDI in Indonesia over the period 1980-2019. Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL), the empirical results showed that market size, domestic investment, government spending and foreign exchange rate are key factors influencing long-run FDI inflows. However, financial development revealed no relationship with FDI inflows in Indonesia. Overall findings indicated that macroeconomic variables influence FDI inflows. These findings guided policymakers in formulating new policies to ensure macroeconomic indicators' stability in driving economic growth.</p> Noris Fatilla Ismail Suraya Ismail Copyright (c) 2021 The Journal of Management Theory and Practice (JMTP) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 110 115 10.37231/jmtp.2021.2.4.184