PERILAKU FONOLOGI KONSONAN DI AKHIR KATA DIALEK PETANI SIK
[THE PHONOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF WORD-FINAL CONSONANTS IN THE PETANI SIK DIALECT]

Nur Syazwani Abdul Salam, Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar

Abstract

Kajian ini mendeskripsikan perilaku fonologi konsonan yang berada di akhir kata dalam dialek Petani Sik yang dituturkan di daerah Sik, Kedah, Malaysia. Terdapat beberapa fenomena fonologi yang berlaku di akhir kata dalam dialek Petani Sik, Kedah lantaran sekatan ke atas kehadiran sesetengah konsonan di posisi dalam dialek ini. Data kajian telah diperoleh melalui kajian rintis, soal selidik serta kajian lapangan yang melibatkan pemerhatian dan rakaman. Pengumpulan data dilakukan di Kampung Telaga Batu, Sik, Kedah dengan memilih 30 penutur natif yang berumur antara 45 hingga 75 tahun. Hasil analisis menunjukkan konsonan /r/, /l/, /s/, /m/ dan /h/ tidak dibenarkan hadir di akhir kata dalam dialek Petani Sik. Kehadiran konsonan-konsonan ini telah ditangani dengan proses fonologi seperti peleburan, penggantian, penyisipan dan pengguguran. Penggantian konsonan /s/ kepada [ç] yang didahului oleh vokal tinggi dan /s/ kepada [h] yang didahului oleh vokal /a/ serta diikuti oleh penyisipan [j] sebelum konsonan tersebut merupakan output dialek Petani Sik yang paling menarik khusunya bunyi [ç]. Kehadirannya dalam dialek-dialek Melayu sangat terhad hanya kepada dialek Kedah Utara dan tidak wujud dalam bahasa Melayu standard. Kemunculannya yang terbatas ini menjadi lambang identiti unik dalam dialek Kedah khususnya dialek Petani Sik. Penelitian proses fonologi di akhir kata dalam dialek Petani Sik memberi implikasi sebagai nilai tambah kepada kajian terdahulu selain sebagai perintis ke arah penyelidikan ilmiah yang memelihara dan mendokumentasikan sistem nahu sebuah dialek Melayu yang semakin kurang penuturnya.

Kata kunci: Bahasa Melayu, dialek Kedah, dialek Petani Sik, fonologi, konsonan akhir kata.

 

ABSTRACT


This study describes the phonological behaviour of word-final consonants in the Petani Sik dialect spoken in the Sik region of Kedah, Malaysia. There are a number of phonological phenomena which occur at word-final position in the Petani Sik dialect due to restriction on the presence of consonants at this position of word. Data for this study were obtained through pilot study, questionnaire and fieldwork which included observation and recording. Data gathering at Kampung Telaga Batu, Sik, Kedah was carried out involving 30 native speakers aged between 45 and 75 years. The findings show that consonants /r/, /l/, /s/, /m/ and /h/ are not allowed to occur at word-final position in the Petani Sik dialect. The occurrence of these consonants has been resolved by the phonological processes namely coalescence, substitution, epenthesis and deletion. The substitution consonant from /s/ to [ç] which is preceded by a high vowel and from /s/ to [h] before /a/ which is then followed by the epenthesis [j] before the consonant are the most interesting outputs yielded from the dialect particularly the [ç]sound. Its presence in Malay dialects is limited only for the North Kedah dialect. It also does not exist in the standard Malay. The limited presence of this sound is interesting as it represents a unique identity symbol for Kedah dialect particularly Petani Sik dialect. This study contributes to the phonological knowledge in the dialect and it documents the grammar of a Malay dialect which now has less speakers.

Keywords: Kedah dialect, Malay language, Petani Sik dialect, phonology, word-final position.

Cite as: Salam, N. S. & Syed Jaafar, S. R. (2019). Perilaku fonologi konsonan di akhir kata dialek petani Sik. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 4(1), 316-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol4iss1pp316-343

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