THE REFORMS OF NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS IN MALAYSIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM

Huan Chin, Lei Mee Thien, Cheng Meng Chiew

Abstract

Although the impact of education policy reform could inform future policymaking initiatives, studies on education policy reform of student assessment are considered scarce. This study attempts to scrutinise the drivers, impacts, and challenges of education policy reform of the national assessment system in Malaysia based on policy documents and previous empirical studies. The findings indicated that the education policy reform of the Malaysian national assessment system is driven by the decline of pupils’ performance in international large-scale assessments. There are changes in content, format, and structure of the public examinations and assessment delivery procedures. The emergence of school-based assessment shows a paradigm shift from cognitive learning to a more holistic manner. Challenges arise included teachers’ extra workload, teachers’ readiness, lack of reference materials, and time constraints in implementing school-based assessment. Findings inferred the needs in refining the monitoring and coaching system in order to ensure the student assessment implementation does not diverge from the missions of education policy reform.  This study is hoped to provide useful insights for future policymaking initiatives, particularly in Malaysia.

 

Keywords: Malaysia, policy reform, public examination, school-based assessment, student assessment.

 

Cite as: Chin, H., Thien, L. M., & Chew, C. M. (2019). The reforms of national assessments in Malaysian education system. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 4(1), 93-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol4iss1pp93-111

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abdullah, T. S. A., Zain, M. Z. M., Nair, S. G., Abdullah, R., & Ismail, I. (2016). PISA: Malaysia’s wake up call for a more balanced approach to education delivery and attainment. In L. M. Thien., A. R. Nordin, J. P. Keeves, & I. G. N. Darmawan (Eds.), What can PISA 2012 data tell us? Performance and challenges in five participating Southeast Asian countries (pp. 81-106). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publisher.

Adamson, B. (2014). Embedding assessment for learning. In R. Berry & B. Adamson (Eds.), Assessment reform in education: Policy and practice (pp. 197-204). New York, NY: Springer.

Berry, R. & Adamson, B. (2014). Assessment reform past, present and future. In R. Berry & B. Adamson (Eds.), Assessment reform in education: Policy and practice (pp. 3-14). New York, NY: Springer.

Berry, R. (2014). Assessment reforms around the world. In R. Berry & B. Adamson (Eds.), Assessment reform in education: Policy and practice (pp. 89-102). New York, NY: Springer.

Ghazali, N. H. C. M. (2016). An evaluation of teachers’ perception in implementing school-based assessment. Jurnal Pendidikan Sains dan Matematik Malaysia, 6(1), 24-40.

Imlig, F., & Ender, S. (2018). Towards a national assessment policy in Switzerland: Areas of conflict in the use of assessment instruments. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(3), 272-290.

Ismail, M. H., Syarifuddin, N. S., Salleh, M. F. M., & Abdullah, N. (2016). School based assessment: Science teachers’ issues and effect on its implementation. Advanced Science Letters, 21(7), 2483-2487.

Kenayathulla, H. B. & Ibrahim, M. S. (2016). Analisis terhadap pelaksanaan dasar pentaksiran berasaskan sekolah di Malaysia: Persepsi guru [Analysis about the implementation of school-based assessment in Malaysia: Teachers’ perception]. In H. Hj. Ahmad & M. S. Ibrahim (Eds.), Transformasi pendidikan nasional: Antara aspirasi dan anjakan (pp. 395-423). Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Malaya.

Lim, C. S. & Hwa, T. Y. (2009). Promoting mathematical thinking in the Malaysian classroom: Issues and challenges. Paper presented at the Meeting of the APEC-Tsukuba International Conference, Japan.

Lim, C. S. (2010). Assessment in Malaysian school mathematics: Issues and concerns. Paper presented at the Meeting of the APEC-Tsukuba International Conference, Japan.

MacPhail, A., Halbert, J., & O’Neill, H. (2018). The development of assessment policy in Ireland: A story of junior cycle reform. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 25(3), 310-326.

Malaysian Examinations Syndicate. (2014a). Panduan pengurusan pentaksiran berasaskan sekolah [School-based assessment management guidelines]. Retrieved from http://lp.moe.gov.my/files/penerbitan/2014/Panduan_Pengurusan_PBS_21_April_2014_2.pdf.

Malaysian Examinations Syndicate. (2014b). Soalan-soalan lazim pentaksiran berasaskan sekolah [Frequently asked questions about school-based assessment]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/amanarab/soalans

Malaysian Examinations Syndicate. (2014c). Surat pekeliling Lembaga Peperiksaan bil. 1/2014: Penambahbaikan pentaksiran berasaskan sekolah (PBS) [Examinations Syndicate circular no. 1/2014: Refinement of school-based assessment (SBA)] (Ref. No: KP.LP.003.07.14(81)).

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2013). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 (Preschool to post-secondary education). Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2016a). Laporan TIMSS 2015 [TIMSS 2015 Report]. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2016b). PISA 2015 - Programme for International Student Assessment. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2016c). Kurikulum standard sekolah menengah: Standard kurikulum dan pentaksiran Matematik Tingkatan 1 [Secondary school standard curriculum: Form 1 Mathematics curriculum and assessment standard document]. Putrajaya: Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education.

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2017a). Dasar pendidikan kebangsaan [National education policy] (4th ed). Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2017b). Pelaporan pentaksiran sekolah rendah 2017 [Primary school assessment report 2017]. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia [MOE]. (2017c). Penataran pentaksiran sekolah (PS)/Pentaksiran bilik darjah (PBD) [Upgrading school assessment (PS)/Classroom assessment (PBS)]. Putrajaya: Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Mohamad, A. S., Ab Rashid, R., Yunus, K., & Zaid, S. B. (2016). Exploring the school improvement specialist coaches’ experience in coaching English language teachers. Arab World English Journal, 7(3), 259-271.

Mohd Nor, N., Leong, K. E., & Mohd Salleh, U. K. (2017). Changes in the Malaysian school curriculum from the pre-independence years until the new millennium. In M. Samuel, M. Y. Tee, & L. P. Symaco (Eds.), Education in Malaysia (pp. 101-118). Singapore: Springer.

Mullis, I. V. S., Martin, M. O., Foy, P., & Hooper, M. (2016). TIMSS 2015 international results in Mathematics. Chestnut Hill: TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Boston College.

Ong, S. L. (2010). Assessment profile of Malaysia: High-stakes external examinations dominate. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 17(1), 91-103.

Othman, I., Md Saleh, N., & Mohd Nooraini, N. A. (2013). The implementation of school based assessment in primary school standard curriculum. International Journal of Education and Research, 1(7), 1-10.

Penang State Education Department. (2018). Surat arahan pelaksanaan pentaksiran bilik darjah (PBD) atau pentaksiran sekolah (PS) di semua sekolah seluruh Pulau Pinang bagi tahun 2018 [Mandate letter for the implementation of classroom assessment (PBD) or school assessment (PS) in all Penang schools for 2018]. [Ref. no: JPNPP(KUR)600-12(23)].

Razak, N. A., Thien, L. M., & Darmawan, I. G. N. (2014). Relationship of student-and classroom level variables with TIMSS 2011 mathematics achievement in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. In S. L. Ong, E. J. Gonzalez, & S. K. S. Shanmugam (Eds.), TIMSS 2011: What can we learn together? Reaching greater heights (pp. 38-64). Penang: SEAMEO RECSAM.

Samuel, M., Tee, M. Y., & Symaco, L. P. (2017). The educational landscape of Malaysia. In M. Samuel, M. Y. Tee, & L. P. Symaco (Eds.), Education in Malaysia (pp. 1-16). Singapore: Springer.

Schuwirth, L. W. & Van der Vleuten, C. P. (2011). Programmatic assessment: From assessment of learning to assessment for learning. Med Teach, 33(6), 478-485.

Singh, P., Supramaniam, K., & Teoh, S. H. (2017). Re-assess or risk the slow death of school based assessment. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 25(S), 71-80.

Thien, L. M., & Darmawan, I. G. N. (2016). Factors associated with Malaysian mathematics performance in PISA 2012. In L. M. Thien., A. R. Nordin, J. P. Keeves, & I. G. N. Darmawan (Eds.), What can PISA 2012 data tell us? Performance and challenges in five participating Southeast Asian countries (pp. 81-106). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publisher.

Thien, L. M. (2016). Malaysian students’ mathematics literacy performance in PISA from gender and socioeconomic perspectives. Asia Pacific Education Researcher, 25(4), 657-666.

Thien, L. M. & Ong, M. Y. (2015). Malaysian and Singaporean students’ affective characteristics and mathematics performance: Evidence from PISA 2012. SpringerPlus, 4(563), 1-14.

UNESCO. (2011). Secondary education regional information base: Country profile - Malaysia. Bangkok: UNESCO.

What the authorities say. (2016, April 17). The Star Online. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/education/2016/04/17/what-the-authorities-say

Zamri, S. N. A. S. (2016). Problem-solving skills among Malaysian students. In L. M. Thien., A. R. Nordin, J. P. Keeves, & I. G. N. Darmawan (Eds.), What can PISA 2012 data tell us? Performance and challenges in five participating Southeast Asian countries (pp. 107-121). Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense Publisher.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.