ASSESSING PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES: TOWARDS DEVELOPING ACTION PLANS

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Urban agriculture (UA) has become an even more attractive option for food security and safety brought by the spread of COVID-19 which causes global health crisis. However, studies examining the perceived values, challenges, and needs towards urban agriculture are very limited and this does not exempt even the context of Cebu City in the Philippines. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the problems and prospects concerning urban agriculture in the aforementioned City. The purposes are to propose action plans and offer insights in designing and implementing food and agricultural programs and policies in the planned participatory action research (PAR) for sustainable urban agriculture.

 

Methodology: This study used Kemmis and McTaggart’s (1988) Model of Action Research. The use of this research method is an essential approach towards constructing sustainable developments of urban agricultural systems. However, only the planning stage was accomplished in this phase of action research of which it employed sequential explanatory research design. There were 509 household representatives in this stage of the study who participated in an online survey, 217 and 292 were from the north district and south district, respectively. Subsequently, each district had five representatives who were subjected to interviews to explain the quantitative results.

 

Findings: Results indicate that Cebuanos positively perceives the social, economic, health, environmental, and aesthetic values of urban agriculture. However, the presence of urban agriculture in the metropolitan is only from moderate to nonexistent due to lack of space or designated area. In addition, the participants disclosed a lack of training and capital or funding, thus further disengaging them from adopting urban agriculture. Nonetheless, the majority (n=463) expressed willingness to be trained in urban agriculture if given the opportunity.

 

Contributions: This study provides key points as to how urban agriculture can be promoted. These include designating some portions of public and privately unused lands as “urban agriculture areas”. In addition, financing institutions may also allocate small subsidies for marginally low-income families as their starting capital for urban agriculture activities. Finally, universities, non-government, and government agencies in the agriculture sector may train Cebuanos in backyard and rooftop gardening being the widely accepted urban agriculture form.

 

Keywords: Action research, perceived challenges, perceived needs, perceived values, urban agriculture.

 

Cite as: Cortes, S. T., Bugtai, V. H., Lampawog, E. Q., Sadili, C. B., Agero, A. D., Ramas, C. B., … Lorca, A. S. (2022). Understanding the issues of citizen participation.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 264-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp264-291

Author Biographies

Sylvester T. Cortes, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Sylvester T. Cortes is a resident faculty of the Cebu Technological University. He has a doctorate degree in science education majoring in biology at the University of San Carlos in Cebu City. He has a wide range of research interests, including the application of action research in teacher training, science education, and food security. In addition, he does research on microplastics and aviation education.

Valerie H. Bugtai, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Valerie H. Bugtai is currently an Associate Professor V at the Cebu Technological University, Cebu City. Through the DOST undergraduate scholarship program, she was able to finish her B.S. Physics for Teachers (cum laude) from the Philippine Normal University in consortium with the De La Salle University, Manila. She finished her Master’s in Technical Education majoring in Physics at the Marikina Institute of Science and Technology, Metro Manila. Currently, she is a candidate for a Ph.D. in Education majoring in Physics and Philosophy at the University of San Carlos, Cebu City.

Eddalin Q. Lampawog, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Eddalin Q. Lampawog is a faculty member at the Cebu Technological University under the Pure Sciences Department of the College of Arts and Sciences. She graduated with a Bachelor's Degree in Secondary Education majoring in Physics and Chemistry at the University of San Carlos, Cebu City, and finished Master's Degree in Education majoring in Physics at the University of the Philippines - Cebu. Currently, she is pursuing Doctor of Education majoring in Science Education at the Cebu Normal University.

Cecile B. Sadili, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Cecile A. Sadili is a faculty member of the College of Arts and Sciences of the Cebu Technological University- Cebu City, Philippines, where she teaches natural science and general education courses. She earned her bachelor’s degree in secondary education majoring in General Science (Cum Laude) from the Cebu State College, now Cebu Normal University, and obtained a Master of Science in Biology from the University of San Carlos under a scholarship program of the Civil Service Commission.

Alma D. Agero, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Alma D. Agero has been teaching chemistry courses at the Cebu Technological University for almost 20 years. She received her Bachelor of Science in Chemistry at the Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Master’s Degree in Educational Administration and Supervision at the Cebu Technological University, Cebu City, and Doctor of Education with specialization in Science Education at the Cebu Normal University, Cebu City.

Crisitina B. Ramas, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Cristina B. Ramas is an associate professor at the Cebu Technological University under the Pure Science department. She teaches Science, Technology and Society, and other Natural sciences courses. Currently, she is pursuing a doctorate in developmental education.

Juanita Z. Sayson, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Juanita Z. Sayson is a resident faculty of the Cebu Technological University. She is currently pursuing a doctorate degree in developmental education at the same university. Her research interests include science education, the development of instructional materials, macroinvertebrates, and action research.

Elena Maria O. Agravante, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Elena Maria O. Agravante is a resident university academic fellow of the Cebu Technological University. She holds a degree in Doctor of Philosophy in Science Education - Chemistry from the University of San Carlos, Cebu City. Her research interests include science education, instructional designs, curriculum and evaluation, food safety, chemistry, and other related fields.

Arlene Fe R. Letrondo, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Arlene Fe R. Letrondo is an Assistant Professor IV at the Cebu Technological University. She has a Bachelor degree in civil engineering and a master’s degree in teaching mathematics which she earned at the University of the Visayas and the University of Cebu, respectively. Currently, she is teaching courses like Physics and Science, Technology, and Society.

Asuncion B. Monsanto, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Asuncion B. Monsanto is a faculty member of the Cebu Technological University under the Pure Sciences Department of College of Arts and Sciences at the Main Campus. She is teaching Chemistry for Engineers and currently designated as the National Service Training Program (NSTP) Director and spearheading the organization of the Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (DRRMO). She obtained her Bachelor of Science degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of San Carlos, Cebu City and passed the Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination. She then further her studies in Bachelor of Science in Education majoring in Mathematics and passed the Licensure Exam for Teachers. She is a candidate for a Master of Arts in Education major in Chemistry at the Cebu Technological University, Cebu City.

Janelyn B. Arado, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Janelyn E. Arado is a chemistry instructor at the Cebu Technological University, Cebu City. In addition, she also works as a research associate under the Research and Development office in the summer of 2018. Currently, she is pursuing a doctorate in Science Education at the Cebu Normal University through the DOST-SEI scholarship grant under the CBPSME program.

Cynthia Anne S. Arbilon, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Cynthia Anne S. Arbilon is a resident faculty of the Cebu Technological University, Cebu City. By profession, she is a registered Nurse and a Medical Technologist. She graduated her Bachelor’s degree from the Southwestern University and the Medina College respectively. Her master’s degree is from the Cebu Technological University in Public Administration and in Education majoring in Teaching Science. She is currently enrolled at the Cebu Normal University for Doctorate degree and is now on her dissertation.

Hedeliza A. Pineda, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Hedeliza A. Pineda is a resident faculty of the Cebu Technological University. She is the Vice-President for Academic Affairs designate and holds an Associate Professor V rank. Her research interests include chemistry education, environmental chemistry, and action research.

Anne S. Lorca, Cebu Technological University, Palma Street, Cebu City, Cebu, Philippines

Anne S. Lorca is a resident faculty at of the Cebu Technological University. She is currently pursuing doctorate degree in science education at the Cebu Normal University. Her research interests include science education, environmental chemistry, chemistry education, and action research.

References

Alvi, M. (2016). A manual for selecting sampling techniques in research. (MPRA Paper no. 70218). University of Karach.

Anuada, A., & Melodillar, C. (2017). Communities’ initiative in addressing hunger in relocation sites in Cebu, Philippines. ASEAN Journal of Community Engagement, 1(2), 29-41.

Audate, P. P., Fernandez, M., Cloutier, G., & Lebel, A. (2018). Impacts of urban agriculture on the determinants of health: Scoping review protocol. JMIR Research Protocols, 7(3), 1-10.

Bousbaine, A. D., & Bryant, C. R. (2016). Action research: An essential approach for constructing the development of sustainable urban agricultural systems. Challenges in Sustainability, 4(1), 20-27.

Bryant, C. R., & Chahine, G. (2015). Action research and reducing the vulnerability of peri-urban agriculture: A case study from the Montreal region. Geographical Research, 54(2), 165-175.

Brown, K., & Jameton, A. (2000). Public health implications of urban agriculture. Journal of Public Health and Policy, 21(1), 20-39.

de Bon, H., Parrot, L., & Moustier, P. (2010). Sustainable urban agriculture in developing countries: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 30(1), 21–32.

Duncan, H., & Popp, I. (2017). Migrants and cities: Stepping beyond world migration report 2015. IOM.

Garvin, E., Cannuscio, C., & Branas, C. (2012). Greening vacant lots to reduce violent crime: A randomised controlled trial. Injury Prevention, 19(3), 198–203.

Haberman, D., Gillies, L., Canter, A., Rinner, V., Pancrazi, L., & Martellozzo, F. (2014). The potential of urban agriculture in Montréal: A quantitative assessment. International Journal of Geo-Information, 3(3), 1101-1117

Hamilton, A. J., Mok, K. B.-F., Barker, S. F., Grove, J. R., & Williamson, V. G. (2014). Give peas a chance? Urban agriculture in developing countries: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34(1), 45–73.

Hussain, M. R., Yusoff, N. H., Tukiman, I., & Samah, M. A. (2019). Community perception and participation of urban farming activities. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 8(1C2), 341-345.

International Labor Organization. (2020). COVID-19 and the impact on agriculture and food security. Switzerland.

Johnson, B. (2001). Toward a new classification of nonexperimental quantitative research. Educational Researcher, 30(2), 3-13.

Indraprahasta, G. S. (2013). The potential of urban agriculture development in Jakarta. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 17(1), 11-19.

Keatinge, J. D., Chadha, M. L., Hughes, J. D., Easdown, W., Holmer, R., Tenkouano, A., & Ebert, A. (2012). Vegetable gardens and their impact on the attainment of the millennium development goals. Biological Agriculture and Horticulture, 28(2), 71-
85.

Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (1988). The action research planner (3rd ed.). Deakin University Press.

Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, R. (2005). Participative action research: Communicative action and the public sphere. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd Ed). Sage.

Kortright, R., & Wakefield, S. (2011). Edible backyards: A qualitative study of household food growing and its contributions to food security. Agriculture and Human Values, 28(1), 39-53.

Lee, B., Binns, T., & Dixon, A. B. (2010). The dynamics of urban agriculture in Hanoi, Vietnam. Field Actions Science Reports.

Linwattana, G. (2013). Application of horticulture in improving urban and peri-urban agriculture towards enhancing food production in Bangkok City. In Regional workshop on strengthening urban and peri-urban agriculture towards resilient food
systems in Asia (pp. 3-9). Food and Agriculture Organization.

Lovell, S. T. (2010). Multifunctional urban agriculture for sustainable land use planning in the United States. Sustainability, 2(1), 2499-2522.

Miura, S., Kunii, O., & Wakai, S. (2003). Home gardening in urban poor communities of the Philippines. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 54(1), 77-88.

Ngahdiman, I. N., Terano, R., Mohamed, Z., & Sharifuddin, J. (2017). Factors affecting urban dwellers to practice urban agriculture. International Journal of Advanced Research, 5(7), 1580-1587.

Orsini, F., Kahane, R., Nono-Womdim, R., & Gianquinto, G. (2013). Urban agriculture in the developing world: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33(1), 695–720.

Pandey, B., & Seto, K. C. (2014). Urbanization and agricultural land loss in India: Comparing satellite estimates with census data. Journal of Environmental Management, 148(1), 53-66.

Potutan, G., Schnitzler, W., Arnado, J., Janubas, L., & Holmer, R. (2000). Urban agriculture in Cagayan de Oro: A favourable response of city government and NGOs. In M. Bakker, S. Dubbeling, U. Guendel, S. Koschella, & H. de Zeeuw (Eds.), Growing
cities growing food; Urban agriculture on the policy agenda (pp. 413–428). DSE.

Saha, M., & Eckelman, M. (2017). Growing fresh fruits and vegetables in an urban landscape: A geospatial assessment of ground level and rooftop urban agriculture potential in Boston, USA. Landscape and Urban Planning, 165(1), 130-141.

Salim, S. A., Alaa, M., Yusof, Z. M., Ibharim, L. F., Salim, S. H., & Hashim, F. (2019). Urban farming activities in Southeast Asia: A review and future research direction. MATEC Web of Conferences, 266(10), 02010.

Surls, R., Feenstra, G., Golden, S., Galt, R., Hardesty, S., Napawan, C., & Wilen, C. (2014). Gearing up to support urban farming in California: Preliminary results of a needs assessment. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems.

Suteethorn, K. (2009). Urban agriculture: Ecological functions for urban landscape. The 2009 Incheon IFLA APR Congress.

Theresa, K., & Pride, C. (2017). The social, economic and health impacts of urban agriculture in Zambia. Asian Journal of Advances in Agricultural Research, 3(1), 1-8.

Tornaghi, C. (2013). Urban agriculture, social cohesion and environmental justice. An action-research project to inform responsive policy making. University of Leeds.

Yeung, Y. (1987). Examples of urban agriculture in Asia. Food and Nutrition Bulletin.
Published
2022-01-13
How to Cite
T. Cortes, S., H. Bugtai, V., Q. Lampawog, E., B. Sadili, C., D. Agero, A., B. Ramas, C., Z. Sayson, J., O. Agravante, E. M., R. Letrondo, A. F., B. Monsanto, A., B. Arado, J., S. Arbilon, C. A., A. Pineda, H., & S. Lorca, A. (2022). ASSESSING PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN CEBU CITY, PHILIPPINES: TOWARDS DEVELOPING ACTION PLANS. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 7(1), 264-291. https://doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp264-291