THE PHILIPPINE PRESIDENT’S RHETORIC ON JAPAN-CHINA RIVALRY AND INDEPENDENT FOREIGN POLICY

Lermie Shayne Garcia

Abstract

This study examines the Japan-China rivalry and independent foreign policy (IFP) rhetoric of Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte. Using both AntConc (concordance program) and conventional reading, this study identifies the themes and aspects as to how he used words related to China and Japan in his speeches. Data analysis reveals that his rhetoric centered on several themes, such as historical relations, brotherly and friendly relations, strategic partnership, China as an economic and military superpower, development assistance, and as point of reference, among others. Contrary to what Duterte portrays as IFP, the study shows that even after two years into his presidency, nothing has really changed in the Philippines. His promise of pursuing an IFP policy has neither taken the form of a concrete plan nor materialized as a policy. This paper argues that the ambivalence in Duterte’s foreign policy rhetoric is just a strategy to accommodate China’s influence while maintaining his nationalist narrative. His IFP rhetoric is just a manifestation of continuing dependency to outside powers. No matter how different it initially seemed to be from previous administrations in the way that it entertains other powers such as China and Japan apart from the US, it still cannot be considered as IFP.

Keywords: Independent foreign policy, Japan-China rivalry, Philippine foreign policy under Duterte, presidential speech analysis, Rodrigo Duterte

Cite as: Garcia, L.S.S. (2018). The Philippine president’s rhetoric on Japan-China rivalry and independent foreign policy. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 3(2),1-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol3iss2pp1-16

Full Text:

PDF

References

Baviera, A. (2014). Domestic interests and foreign policy in China and the Philippines: Implications for the South China Sea disputes. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints, 62(1), 133-143.

Baviera, A. (2016). President Duterte's foreign policy challenges. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International & Strategic Affairs, 38(2), 202-208.

Calder, K. (2006). China and Japan’s simmering rivalry. Foreign Affairs, 85(2), 129-139.

Castillo, G. (2017, September 6). Duterte’s in(depend)ent foreign policy. Focus on the Global South. Retrieved from https://focusweb.org/content/duterte-s-independent-foreign-policy

Chu, S. (2008). A mechanism to stabilize US-China-Japan trilateral relations in Asia. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies.

Cigaral, I. N. (2018, February 21). Pernia sees China-Japan rivalry for Philippine infrastructure push. PhilStar. Retrieved from http://portal.jip.ph/pernia-sees-china-japan-rivalry-for-philippine-infrastructure-push/

Department of Trade and Industry. (2017). China lifts import ban on Philippine bananas. Retrieved from https://www.dti.gov.ph/archives/27-main-content/emb-news/9914-china-lifts-import-ban-on-philippine-bananas

De Castro, R. (2013). China and Japan in maritime Southeast Asia: Extending their geo-strategic rivalry by competing for friends. Philippine Political Science Journal, 34(2), 150-169.

De Castro, R. (2017). The Duterte Administration’s appeasement policy on China and the crisis in the Philippine–US alliance. Philippine Political Science Journal, 38(3), 151-181.

De Guzman, C. (2014). Philippines-China relations, 2001-2008: Dovetailing national interests. Asian Studies Journal of Critical Perspectives, 50(1), 71-97.

Galang, M. (2017). Understanding President Duterte’s ‘independent foreign policy’. Retrieved from http://appfi.ph/publications/commentaries/1379-understanding-president-duterte-s-independent-foreign-policy

Heydarian, R. J. (2017a). The rise of Duterte: A populist revolt against elite democracy. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.

Heydarian, R. J. (2017b). Tragedy of small power politics: Duterte and the shifting sands of Philippine foreign policy. Asian Security, 13(3), 220-236.

Kwan, C. H. (2002). The rise of China as an economic power: Implications for Asia and Japan. In H. G. Hilpert & R. Haak, Japan and China: Cooperation, competition and conflict (pp. 12-31). Hampshire: Palgrave.

Lorenzana: We can live without aid from the US. (2016, October 8). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved from https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/823077/oslo-colombian-president-juan-manuel-santos-won-the-2016-nobel-peace-prize-on-friday-for-his-efforts-to-end-a-52-year-old-war-with-marxist-rebels-a-surprise-choice-after-colombians-voted-agai

Menocal, A. R., Denney, L., & Geddes, M. (2011). Locating Japan’s ODA within a crowded and shifting marketplace. London: The Overseas Development Institute.

Merez, A. (2017, June 30). Duterte’s ‘independent’ foreign policy: A move to diversify allies. ABS-CBN News. Retrieved from http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/06/30/17/dutertes-independent-foreign-policy-a-move-to-diversify-allies

Morada, N. (2009). The rise of China and regional responses: A Philippine perspective. Retrieved from http://www.nids.mod.go.jp/english/publication/joint_research/series4/pdf/4-4.pdf

Murphy, A. M. (2017). Great power rivalries, domestic politics and Southeast Asian foreign policy: Exploring the linkages. Asian Security, 13(3), 165-182.

Nabers, D. (2010). Power, leadership, and hegemony in international politics: The case of East Asia. Review of International Studies, 36(4), 931-949.

National Economic and Development Authority. (2016). Philippine Development Plan 2017-2022. Retrieved from http://www.neda.gov.ph/2017/07/26/philippine-development-plan-2017-2022/

Padilla, A. (2017, July 21). Building destruction: Foreign creditors gain more from Duterte’s infra plan. IBON. Retrieved from http://ibon.org/2017/07/building-destruction-foreign-creditors-gain-more-from-dutertes-infra-plan/

Palatino, M. (2017, May 13). Is Rodrigo Duterte really anti-American? The Diplomat. Retrieved from https://thediplomat.com/2017/05/is-rodrigo-duterte-really-anti-american/

Park, J. (2013). Political rivals and regional leaders: Dual identities and Sino-Japanese relations within East Asian cooperation. The Chinese Journal of International Politics, 6(1), 85-107.

Park, J. (2014). Critical strategic practice and Sino-Japanese pluralized regional leadership: Collective leadership, competitive coexistence and a blocking power relationship. Japanese Journal of Political Science, 15(01), 69-89.

Philippine Statistics Authority. (2017). Highlights of the Philippine export and import statistics. Retrieved from https://psa.gov.ph/content/highlights-philippine-export-and-import-statistics-october-2017

Poushter, J. & Bishop, C. (2017). People in the Philippines still favor U.S. over China, but gap is narrowing Duterte and his war on drugs are seen positively by most Filipinos. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/09/21/people-in-the-philippines-still-favor-u-s-over-china-but-gap-is-narrowing/

Quinto, E. J. M. (2014). Stylistic analysis of deictic expressions in President Benigno Aquino III‘s October 30th speech. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 20(2), 1-18.

Roy, D. (2005). Southeast Asia and China: Balancing or bandwagoning? Contemporary Southeast Asia, 27(2), 305-22.

Rubic-Rocamora, R. (2018). President Rodrigo Roa Duterte’s political speeches: A critical discourse analysis. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 23(8), 72-87.

Serquiña, O. (2016). The greatest workers of the world: Philippine labor out-migration and the politics of labeling in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo’s presidential rhetoric. Philippine Political Science Journal, 37(3), 207-227.

Trinidad, D. (2017). Japan’s new development cooperation and strategic partnership with ASEAN: Quo Vadis? Retrieved from http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/HKU2017-s/Archive/c977b0cc-90f1-41d4-990c-51bba5f61b9d.pdf

Webb, A. (2017). Hide the looking glass: Duterte and the legacy of American imperialism. In N. Curato, A Duterte reader: Critical essays on Rodrigo Duterte’s early presidency (pp. 127-144). Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

Wike, R., Poushter, J., Silver, L., & Bishop, C. (2017). Globally, more name U.S. than China as world’s leading economic power but balance shifts in eyes of some key U.S. trading partners and allies. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/07/13/more-name-u-s-than-china-as-worlds-leading-economic-power/

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.