PERKEMBANGAN JURAGAN-PENGUSAHA DALAM INDUSTRI PERIKANAN DI MALAYSIA
[EVOLUTION OF SKIPPER-ENTREPRENEUR IN THE FISHING INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA]

Norfatiha Othman, Abdul Rahman Abdul Latip, Nor Hayati Sa'at

Abstract

Artikel ini memfokuskan perkembangan juragan yang memimpin kapal di laut dalam. Suatu perubahan telah berlaku kepada juragan laut dalam, yang mana sebahagian daripada mereka mempunyai ciri-ciri keusahawanan dan memainkan peranan sebagai seorang usahawan. Sebahagian daripada mereka bukan lagi juragan kapal tetapi berubah menjadi usahawan perikanan. Justeru, artikel ini bertujuan mengenal pasti ciri-ciri keusahawanan dan peranan yang dimainkan oleh juragan dalam industri perikanan. Kajian dijalankan di Wilayah East Coast Economic Region (ECER) yang melibatkan empat buah negeri di Malaysia iaitu Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang dan Johor Timur. Kaedah temu bual mendalam terhadap 17 orang informan iaitu lima di Kelantan, tiga di Terengganu, enam di Pahang dan tiga di Endau-Mersing. Mereka dipilih melalui pensampelan bertujuan dan pensampelan bola salji. Hasil temu bual ditranskripsikan ke dalam bentuk verbatim dan dianalisis menggunakan kaedah tematik. Hasil kajian mendapati juragan laut dalam tidak lagi berperanan sebagai juragan, tetapi mereka telah menjadi seorang pengusaha perikanan. Transformasi mereka daripada juragan laut dalam kepada pengusaha atau dikenali sebagai ‘juragan-pengusaha’ merupakan satu perkembangan penting kepada industri perikanan. Mereka memiliki ciri keusahawanan iaitu modal manusia, modal sosial dan modal ekonomi. Ketiga-tiga modal ini penting bagi seseorang usahawan dalam mengurus dan menyusun atur organisasi perikanan sama ada dari segi merebut peluang, mengharungi risiko, proses pengeluaran tinggi, modal yang banyak dan jaringan hubungan sosial. Perubahan peranan daripada juragan semata-mata kepada menjalankan peranan dalam organisasi dan pasaran menyerlahkan lagi multi-fungsi seorang usahawan. Perkembangan juragan-pengusaha dapat menggalakkan lagi kerancakan pengeluaran ikan negara seterusnya menjamin kepada keselamatan makanan negara.

Kata kunci: Industri perikanan, juragan, nelayan laut dalam, transformasi, usahawan nelayan.

 

ABSTRACT


This article focuses on the development of the skipper who led the deep-sea vessel. Changes occurred to the deep-sea skipper, in which some of them possess entrepreneurial characteristics and act as an entrepreneur. Some of them turn out to be fishery entrepreneurs. The study was conducted in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER) which involved four states in Malaysia, namely, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, and East Johor. A total of 17 informants were interviewed, five in Kelantan, three in Terengganu, six in Pahang and three in Endau-Mersing, in which, they were selected through purposive sampling and snowball sampling. The interviews were transcribed into verbatim and analyzed using thematic approach. The findings confirm that the deep-sea skippers are no longer a skipper but they have transformed to become a fishery entrepreneur. Their transformation from deep-sea skipper to entrepreneurs or known as skipper-entrepreneur is a significant development in the fishery industry. They possess entrepreneurial characteristics of human capital, social capital and economic capital, in which, all of these capitals are important for an entrepreneur in managing and organizing fishery organizations. It involves seizing opportunities, risks-taking, high production processes, high capital and social networking. The evolution form solely a skipper to take part in organization and market makes them a multi-function entrepreneur. The development of the skipper-entrepreneur can further increase the national fish production, thus contribute to ensuring national food security.

Keywords: Deep-sea fisherman, fishery entrepreneur, fishing industry, skipper, transformation.

Cite as: Othman, N., Abdul Latip, A. R., & Sa’at, N. H. (2019). Perkembangan juragan-pengusaha dalam industri perikanan di Malaysia. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 4(1), 112-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol4iss1pp112-135

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