Siti Nursaila Alias, Faridah Ibrahim


The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Newton’s Laws educational games in improving Newton’s Laws achievement and instructional efficiency. Two educational games were developed, namely educational games with self-explanation (DPK) and educational games without self-explanation (TPK). Based on Rapid Prototyping model, these educational games were developed in Malay Language and the contents were arranged according to Form Four Physics syllabus. Unity3D software was used as the main software in developing the educational games. A total of 196 students attended Physics play activities for two hours. Analyses of Newton’s Laws Test, mental load and interviews were conducted to examine the effectiveness of these Newton’s Laws educational games. The findings show that the students’ achievement and instructional efficiency in Newton’s Laws improved with the use of the educational games. This research concludes that the educational games mode plays an important role in increasing the students’ achievement and learning instructional efficiency with the DPK mode is the most effective and efficient. The educational games mode serves as a scaffold for the formation of a coherent mental model and automatic schema.


Keywords: Educational games, Newton’s Laws, Physics, achievement, instructional efficiency

Cite as: Alias, S.N., & Ibrahim, F. (2017). Keberkesanan permainan pendidikan terhadap pembelajaran hukum Newton [The effectiveness of educational games on Newton’s laws learning]. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 2(1), 71-85.

Full Text:



Abd Rahman, N. & Abdullah, H. (2011, November 5). Pemansuhan PPSMI kekal. Utusan Malaysia. Retrieved from

Angela, M. (2011). Teaching Newton’s laws to urban middle school students: Strategies for conceptual understanding. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 5(1), 54-67

Augustine (1991). Confessions (H. Chadwick, Trans.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Awang Itam, M. (2006). Sikap guru terhadap keberkesanan buku teks Bahasa Melayu dan penggunaannya di dalam bilik darjah. (Master dissertation). Universiti kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia.

Birova (2013). Game as a main strategy in language education. American Journal of Educational Research, 1(1), 6-10.

Calin-Jageman, R.J. & Ratner, H.H. (2005). The role of encoding in the self-explanation effect. Cognition and Instruction, 23(4), 523–543.

Canobi, K.H. (2009). Concept-procedure interactions in children's addition and subtraction. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102, 131-149.

Chi, M.T.H. (2009). Active-constructive-interactive: A conceptual framework for differentiating learning activities. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1(1), 73-105.

Cowling, M. & Birt, J. (2016). Piloting mixed reality in ICT networking to visualize complex theoretical multi-step problems. In S. Barker, S. Dawson, A. Pardo, & C. Colvin (Eds.), Show Me The Learning, Proceedings ASCILITE 2016 Adelaide (pp. 163-168). University of South Australia, Adeleide: Faculty of Society and Design Publications.

De Leeuw, N. & Chi, M.T.H. (2003). Self-explanation: Enriching a situation model or repairing a domain model? Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining “Gamification”. MindTrek ’11 Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, Tampere, 28 – 30 September 2011 (pp. 9–15). Finland: ACM Digitak Library.

Dondi, C. & Moretti, M. (2007). A methodological proposal for learning games selection and quality assessment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3), 502-512.

Echeverria, A., Garcia-Campo, C., Nussbaum, M., Gil, F., Vilalta, M., Amestica, M., & Echeverria, S. (2011). A framework for the design and integration of collaborative classroom games. Computers & Education, 57, 1127–1136.

Ertzberger, J. (2008). An exploration of factors affecting teachers’ use of video games as instructional tools. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

Feng-Qi, L. & Timothy, J. (2012). Impact of static graphics, animated graphics and mental imagery on a complex learning task. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(1), 91-104.

Gay, L.R. & Airasian, P. (2003). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and application (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Halim, L., Yong, T.K., & Meerah, T.S.M. (2014). Overcoming students’ misconceptions on forces in equilibrium: An action research study. Creative Education, 5, 1032-1042

Hamari, J., Koivisto, J. & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does gamification work? A literature review of empirical studies on gamification. HICSS '14 Proceedings of the 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, 6-9 January 2014 (pp. 3025-3034). USA: IEEE Computer Society Washington.

Harun, J. & Tasir, Z. (2003). Pengenalan Kepada Multimedia. Selangor: Venton Publishing (M) Sdn. Bhd.

Hegarty, S. (1993) Reviewing the literature on integration. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 8(3), 194-200.

Hsu, C.Y., Tsai, C.C., & Wang, H.Y. (2012). Facilitating third graders' acquisition of scientific concepts through digital game-based learning: The effects of self-explanation principles. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 21(1), 71-82.

Ionas, I.G., Cernusca, D., & Collier, H.L. (2012). Prior knowledge influence on self-explanation effectiveness when solving problems: An exploratory study in Science learning. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24(3), 349-358.

Ismail, A.T. & Ayop, S.K. (2016). Tahap kefahaman dan salah konsep terhadap konsep daya dan gerakan dalam kalangan pelajar tingkatan empat. Jurnal Fizik Malaysia, 37(1), 1-12.

Ito, M. (2008). Education v. entertainment: A cultural history of children's software. New York, U.S.: The MacArthur Foundation Digital Media and Learning Initiative.

Johari, H. & Shahrina, A.R. (2012). Ketagihan penggunaan internet di kalangan remaja sekolah tingkatan 4 di bandaraya Johor Bahru. Journal of Technical, Vocational & Engineering Education, 6, 23-43.

Kalantzis, M. & Cope, B. (2010). Learning by design. E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(3), 198-199.

Keller, J.M. (1987). Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational design. Journal of Instructional Development, 10(3), 2-10.

Kim, E. & Pak, S.J. (2001). Students do not overcome conceptual difficulties after solving 1000 traditional problems. Am. J. Phys. 70(7), 759-765.

Kinzie, M.B. & Joseph, D.R.D. (2008). Gender differences in game activity preferences of middle school children: Implications for educational game design. Educational Technology Research & Development, 56, 643–663.

Leonard, W.J., Dufresne, R.J., & Mestre, J.P. (1996). Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems. American Journal of Physics, 64(12), 1495-1503.

Lewalter, D. (2003). Cognitive strategies for learning from static and dynamic visuals. Learning and Instruction, 13(2), 177-189.

Maizatul Hayati, M.Y., Md Nasir, M., & Laili Farhana, M.I. (2014). Pendekatan melalui reka bentuk permainan digital dalam proses pengajaran dan pembelajaran kanak-kanak: Isu dan cabaran. 5th International Conference on Education Technology of Adi Buana, Surabaya, 24 Mei 2014 (pp. 1-10). Indonesia: Global Challenges and Reconstruction for Future Education.

Markey, C., Power, D., & Booker, G. (2003). Using structured games to teach early fraction concepts to students who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of The Deaf, 148(3), 251-258.

Masson, M.E.J., Bub, D.N., & Lalonde, C.E. (2011). Video-game training and naive reasoning about object motion. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 166–173.

Matthews, P. & Rittle-Johnson, B. (2008). In pursuit of knowledge: Comparing self-explanations, concepts and procedures as pedagogical tools. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104(1), 1-21.

Mayer, R.E. (2011). Multimedia learning and games. Charlotte, NC: Information Age.

Moira, K., Shawnna, H., & Laurice, M.J. (2016). Evidence-based instruction is not enough: strategies for increasing instructional efficiency. Intervention in School and Clinic, 47(2), 67-74.

Neo, M. & Rafi, A. (2007). Designing interactive multimedia curricula to enhance teaching and learning in the Malaysian classroom- from teacher-led to student-centered experiences. International Journal of Instructional Media, 34(1), 51-59.

Noor Azli, M.M., Hairol Anuar, M.D., Ahmad Nazeer, Z.A., Nur Muizz, M.S., & Intan Fadzliana, A. (2015). Kesan permainan digital dalam pendidikan. International Conference on Information Technology & Society, Kuala Lumpur, 8-9 June 2015 (pp. 292-297). Malaysia: Proceeding of IC-ITS.

Nordin, A. & Ling, L.H. (2011). Hubungan sikap terhadap mata pelajaran sains dengan penguasaan konsep asas sains pelajar tingkatan dua. Journal of Science & Mathematics Educational, 4, 89-101.

Paas, F. & van Merrienboer, J. (1993). The efficiency of instructional conditions: An approach to combine mental-effort and performance measures. Human Factors, 35, 737–743.

Palmer, D. (2001). Student’s alternative conceptions and scientifically acceptable conceptions about Gravity. International Journal of Science Education, 23(7), 691-706.

Paraskeva, F., Mysirlaki, S., & Papagianni, A. (2010). Multiplayer online games as educational tools: Facing new challenges in learning. Computers & Education, 54, 498-505.

Phang, F.A. & Noor Izyan, S. (2012). Pengajaran Free-Body Diagram (FBD) dalam menyelesaikan masalah tajuk daya Tingkatan Empat. Seminar Majlis Dekan Pendidikan IPTA 2012, The Zon Regency, Johor Bahru, 7-9 October 2012 (pp. 1-15). Johor: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Education.

Renkl, A. & Atkinson, R.K. (2003). Structuring the transition from example study to problem solving in cognitive skills acquisition: A cognitive load perspective. Educational Psychologist, 38, 15-22.

Rieber L.P. (1989). The effects of computer animated elaboration strategies and practice on factual and application learning in an elementary science lesson. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 5, 431-444.

Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K.R. (2009). Iterating between lessons concepts and procedures can improve mathematics knowledge. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 483-500.

Rittle-Johnson, B., Siegler, R.S., & Alibali. (2001). Developing conceptual understanding and procedural skill in mathematics: An iterative process. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 346-362.

Rittle-Johnson, B., Star, J.R., & Durkin, K. (2009). The important of prior knowledge when comparing examples: Influences on conceptual and procedural knowledge of equation solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(4), 836-852.

Rosengrant, D., Van Heuvelen, A., & Etkina, E. (2009). Do students use and understand free-body diagrams? Physical Review Special Topics - Physics Education Research, 5(1), 1-13.

Roy, M. & Chi, M.T.H. (2014). The self-explanation principle in multimedia learning. In R. Mayer, (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning, 2nd Edition (pp. 413-432).

Sandford, R., Ulicsak, M., Facer, K., & Rudd, T. (2006). Teaching with games: Using commercial off-the-shelf games in formal education. Bristol, U.K.: Futurelabs.

Selvarajah, M. (2010). Penilaian terhadap kualiti buku teks Kemahiran Hidup Tahun 4: Tumpuan kepada guru-guru Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Tamil di Wilayah Persekutuan. (Master dissertation). Universiti Malaya, Kuala Kumpur.

Shepherd, N. (2007). Archaeology dreaming: Post-apartheid urban imaginaries and the bones of the prestwich street dead. Journal of Social Archaelogy, 7(1), 3-28.

Shih, Y.F. & Alessi, S.M. (1994). Mental models and transfer of learning in computer programming. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 262, 154-175.

Siti Maisyarah. (2013). Pembangunan dan kesan koswer animasi grafik dalam kalangan pelajar teknikal yang berbeza kecerdasan visual-ruang. (Master dissertation). Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia.

Star, J.R. & Newton, K.J. (2009). The nature and development of expert's strategy flexibility for solving equations. ZDM Mathematics Education, 41, 557-567.

Stelzer, T., Gladding, G., Mestre, J., & Brookes, D. (2009). Comparing the efficacy of multimedia modules with traditional textbooks for learning introductory physics content. The Physics Teachers, 77, 184-190.

Sweetser, P. & Wyeth, P. (2005). Gameflow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 3(3), 1-24.

Sweller, J. (2010). Element interactivity and intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Educational Psychology Review, 22, 123-138.

Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty and instructional design. Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295-312.

Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12, 2157-285.

Syuhendri. (2015). The effect of conceptual change strategies towards fostering conceptual change in students’ understanding of mechanics. (Doctoral dissertation). Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Malaysia.

Tasker, R. & Dalton, R. (2008). Visualizing the molecular world–design, evaluation, and use of animations. In J.K. Gilbert et al., (eds.), Visualization: Theory and practice in science education (pp. 103-131).

Van Lehn, K. & Jones, R. (1993). What mediates the self-explanation effect? Knowledge gaps, schemas or analogies? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., & Ritterfeld, U. (2004). Enjoyment: At the heart of media entertainment. Communication Theory, 14(4), 388-408.

William, J. & Beatty, I. (2005). Teaching vs. learning: Changing perspectives on problem solving in physics instruction. 9th Common Conference of the Cyprus Physics Association and Greek Physics Association: Developments and Perspectives in Physics - New Technologies and Teaching of Science, Nicosia, 4-6 Feb 2005 (pp. 1-10). Cyprus: Scientific Reasoning Research Institute & Department of Physics.

Woo, J.C. (2014). Digital game-based learning supports student motivation, cognitive success and performance outcomes. Educational Technology & Society, 17(3), 291-307.

Yenilmez, A. & Tekkaya, C. (2006). Enhancing students’ understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plant through conceptual change approach. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15(1), 81-87.

Zakaria, E., Mohd Nordin, N., & Ahmad, S. (2007). Trend pengajaran dan pembelajaran matematik. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications & Distributors Sdn. Bhd.


  • There are currently no refbacks.