THE IMPACT OF CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK ON IRANIAN EFL LEARNERS’ WRITING COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY, AND FLUENCY

Abstract

Background/Purpose: Recently, corrective feedback (CF) has gained considerable importance in language teaching research. Up until now, there has been less attention to the use of CF in an Iranian context.  This current study aims at investigating the impact of corrective feedback on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ Complexity (C), Accuracy (A), and Fluency (F) in their writing production.

 

Methodology: After administering an Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT), the researcher selected 30 Iranian intermediate learners at a private English language institute in Isfahan, Iran and divided them into two groups of 15 randomly. An Oxford placement test was run to make sure that the two groups were homogenous. A series of writing tasks were developed to examine the participants’ performance in writing. The experimental group attended the class in which CF was performed where they received feedback from the teachers and also their partners in the class (by crossing out and explaining) during the writing tasks on how to use the correct forms of the words and tenses. The control group attended the class in which CF was performed briefly. At the end of the study, all subjects participated in paragraph writing. To compare the group means for the study, a test analysis was performed. The difference between the experimental and the control group was considered to be important.

 

Findings: The results of Independent and samples t tests revealed that the participants in the experimental group outperformed the ones in the control group in writing production. The results clearly indicated that the participants who received CF did better than those who did not. Therefore, the findings generally revealed that CF had a significant effect on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency.

 

Contributions: This study has multiple benefits for language learners and teachers. Utilizing CF in writing classes can be a practical way to improve students’ proficiency and writing skill. In addition, this study draws attention to the Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency (CAF) of written production.

 

Keywords: Corrective feedback, complexity, accuracy, fluency, Iranian Intermediate EFL learners.

 

Cite as: Ghahderijani, B. H. (2021). The impact of corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners’ writing complexity, accuracy, and fluency. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 6(2), 250-272. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol6iss2pp250-272

Author Biography

Behnoosh Heshmat Ghahderijani, English department, Faculty of Humanities, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran

Behnoosh Heshmat Ghahderijani holds an MA degree in TEFL from the Islamic Azad University of Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran. Her main interests of research are TEFL, EFL Teaching and Learning, Teaching Language Skills, and Language Learning Strategies. Behnoosh has been teaching for more than 15 years at different private English language institutions.

References

Abedi, P., Namaziandost, E., & Akbari, S. (2019). The impact of flipped classroom instruction on Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners' writing skill. English Literature and Language Review, 5(9), 164-172.

Almasi, E., & Nemat Tabrizi, A. R. (2016). The effects of direct vs. indirect corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' writing accuracy. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 3(1), 74-85.

Ansarian, A. A., & Chehr Azad, M. H. (2015). Differential effects of focused and unfocused recasts on the EFL learners’ oral accuracy. Colombian Applied Linguistics Journal, 17(1), 86-97.

Azizi, M., Behjat, F., & Sorahi, M. (2014). Effect of metalinguistic teacher corrective feedback on writing performance of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(6), 54-63.

Bitchener, J., & Knoch, U. (2010). The contribution of written corrective feedback to language development: A ten-month investigation. Applied Linguistics, 31(1), 193–214.

Butler, Y. G., & Zeng, W. (2014). Young foreign language learners’ interactions during task based paired assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 11(1), 45-75.

DeKeyser, R. (2014). The effect of error correction on L2 grammar knowledge and oral proficiency. Modern Language Journal, 77(1), 501-514

Dulay, H. C., & Burt, M. K. (2013). Natural sequences in child second language acquisition. Language Learning, 24(1), 37-53.

Ellis, R. (2014). The study of second language acquisition (2nd edition). Oxford University Press.

Ferris, D., & Roberts, B. (2011). Error feedback in l2 writing classes: How explicit does it need to be? Journal of Second Language Writing, 10(3), 161-184.

Frantzen, D. (2010). The effects of grammar supplementation on written accuracy in an intermediate Spanish content course. Modern Language Journal, 79(1), 329–344.

García Mayo, M. P., & AlcónSoler, E. (2013). Negotiated input and output/interaction. In J. Herschensohn & M. Young-Scholten (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 209-229). Cambridge University Press.

Golpour, F., Ahour, T., & Ahangari, S. (2020). Iranian EFL teachers' beliefs and practices regarding written corrective feedback with a focus on teaching experience. Journal of Language Horizons, 4(1), 247-271.

Guillén, M., T., F. (2012). The role of interaction in the young learners’ classroom. Encuentro, 7(2), 6-14.

Hamouda, A. (2011). A study of learners and teachers' preferences and attitudes towards: Correction of classroom written errors in Saudi EFL context. English Language Teaching, 4(3) 128–41.

Hashemifardnia, A., Namaziandost, E., & Sepehri, M. (2018). The effectiveness of giving grade, corrective feedback, and corrective feedback-plus-giving grade on grammatical accuracy. International Journal of Research Studies in Language
Learning, 8(1), 15-27.

Lalande, J. F. (2011). Reducing composition errors: An experiment. Modern Language Journal, 66(1), 140–149.

Larsen-Freeman, D., & Strom, V. (1977). The construction of a second language acquisition index of development. Language Learning, 27(1), 123–34.

Lee, I. (2011). Ten mismatches between teachers’ beliefs and written feedback practice. ELT Journal, 63(1), 13–22.

Lennon, P. (1990). Investigating fluency in EFL: A quantative approach. Language Learning 40(1), 387-417.

Li, H., & He, Q. (2017). Chinese secondary EFL learners' and teachers' preferences for types of written corrective feedback. English Language Teaching,10(3), 63-73.

Lizotte, R. (2001). Quantifying progress in an ESL writing class. MATSOL Currents, 27(1), 7-17.

Lyster, R., Saito, K., & Sato, M. (2016). Oral corrective feedback in second language classrooms. Language Teaching, 46(1), 1-40.

Mackey, A. (2012). Input, interaction and corrective feedback in L2 classrooms. Oxford University Press.

Mirshekaran, R., Namaziandost, E., & Nazari, M. (2018). The effects of topic interest and l2 proficiency on writing skill among Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 9(6), 1270-1276.

Montgomery, J. L., & Baker, W. (2007). Teacher-written feedback: Student perceptions, teacher self-assessment, and actual teacher performance. Journal of Second Language Writing, 16(1), 82–99.

Namaziandost, E., Sawalmeh, M. H. M., & Izadpanah Soltanabadi, M. (2020). The effects of spaced versus massed distribution instruction on EFL learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1-13.

Nasri, M., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). The impact of topic choice on descriptive writing ability among Iranian advanced EFL learners. International Journal of English Language Studies (IJELS), 1(1), 1-9.

Neisi, L., Nasri, M., Akbari, S., & Namaziandost, E. (2019). The comparative effect of teacher-assigned topics and student-selected topics on Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners’ writing skill. Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied
Linguistics, 1(1), 1-15.

Pakbaz, R. (2020). The effect of written corrective feedback on EFL learners' writing performance: Explicit vs. implicit. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(5), 12-17.

Philp, J., Oliver, R., & Mackey, A. (2008). Child's play? Second language acquisition and the younger learner. John Benjamins.

Rezaei, A., Izadpanah, S., & Shahnavaz, A. (2017). The effects of corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' writing. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies, 5(4), 107-117.

Salimi, A. (2015). The effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners’ oral task performance. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 6(6), 54–62.

Sermsook, K., Liamnimitr, J., & Pochakorn, R. (2016). The impact of teacher corrective feedback on EFL learner writers’ grammatical improvement. English Language Teaching, 10(10), 43-49.

Sheen, Y. (2007). The effect of focused written corrective feedback and language aptitude on ELS learners’ acquisition of articles. TESOL Quarterly, 41(2), 255-284.

Sheppard, K. (2010). Two feedback types: Do they make a difference? RELC Journal, 23(1), 103–110.

Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford University Press.

Sobhani, M., & Tayebipour, F. (2018). The effects of oral vs. written corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners’ essay writing. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(8), 1601-1611.

Thompson, T. (2010). Family and friends. Oxford University Press.

Truscott, J. (1996). The case against grammar correction in L2 writing classes. Language Learning, 46(1), 327–336.

Truscott, J. (2008). Dialogue: Evidence and conjecture on the effects of correction: A response to Chandler. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(4), 337-343.

Wigglesworth, G., & Storch, N. (2009). Pair versus individual writing: Effects on fluency, complexity and accuracy. Language Testing, 26(3), 445-466.

Zhang, X. (2017). Reading–writing integrated tasks, comprehensive corrective feedback, and EFL writing development. Language Teaching Research, 21(2), 217-240.

Zohrabi, M., Farrokhi, F., & Chehr Azad, M. (2017). The effect of the corrective feedback on Iranian EFL learners' speaking accuracy and breakdown fluency. Journal of Language Horizons, 1(2), 107-129.
Published
2021-06-30
How to Cite
Ghahderijani, B. H. (2021). THE IMPACT OF CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK ON IRANIAN EFL LEARNERS’ WRITING COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY, AND FLUENCY. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 6(2), 250-272. https://doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol6iss2pp250-272