MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS AND THE MOTIVATION OF PAKISTANI ESL LEARNERS: A REVIEW
The aim of this paper is to review the literature and exemplify the manifestation of integrative and instrumental motivational orientations in Pakistan’s ESL learners with reference to Gardner’s Socio-Educational model. It delineates issues that impede the motivational process and contextual elements with motivational factors that could provide new insights to help practitioners plus policy makers to determine and address contemporary concerns in the holistic learning of English. The study principally sheds light on the current state of motivation in Pakistani ESL students, projecting a need to revise the English language curricula to more inclusive ones at all academic tiers; construct collegial classrooms; modify the practiced didactic approaches and focus on development of contextually suitable contents as some of the initiatives that need to be taken into consideration for nurturing students’ and teachers’ motivation in alignment with the model. The present study majorly proposes the need to utilize the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) for comprehensive analysis of students’ motivation and it provides an adapted simplified version of AMTB that can be used to examine Pakistani ESL students’ motivation, and further tested in other similar contexts.
Key Words: ESL, instrumental, motivational orientations, integrative, language learning.
Cite as: Jafri, U. A. (2022). Motivational orientations and the motivation of Pakistani ESL learners: A review. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 221-242. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp221-242
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