• Jessica Abisheganathan Jeevaratnam Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mahani Stapa Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia


Background and Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the metacognitive reading strategies used by low and high proficiency Form Three ESL (English as Second Language) students and highlight suitable strategies that can be exposed to the low proficiency students.


Methodology: To serve the purpose of this research, an explanatory sequential mixed method design was used. As for the sampling, purposive sampling was employed in this study. The respondents were drawn from two Form Three classes in the selected secondary school in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. There were twenty-four boys and thirty-six girls. They were all fifteen years old and represented three main ethnic groups which are Malays, Indians and Chinese. The number of respondents was equally the same for both groups; 30 from the low proficiency group and 30 from the high proficiency group.


Findings: The data gathered in this study revealed that the most popular metacognitive reading strategy among the respondents is self-evaluation. In addition, the most significant difference between the high and low proficiency students is that the latter employed fewer metacognitive reading strategies than the former. Furthermore, through the findings, this research also suggested the metacognitive reading strategies suitable for the low proficiency students; advanced organization, selective attention, self-management, directed attention and monitoring.


Contributions: This research aids the teachers in adapting their instructions and putting extra effort into training students, especially low proficiency students, to use suitable metacognitive reading strategies.

Keywords: Low proficiency students, high proficiency students, purposive sampling, metacognitive reading strategies, explanatory sequential mixed method design.


Cite as: Jeevaratnam, J. A., & Stapa, M. (2022). Exploring metacognitive reading strategies used by low and high proficiency form three ESL students. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(1), 335-365. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp335-365

Author Biographies

Jessica Abisheganathan Jeevaratnam, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Jessica Abisheganathan a/p Jeevaratnam is a teacher at SMK Pasir Putih, Pasir Gudang, Johor. She is currently pursuing her PhD in TESL at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). Her research interest is mainly on reading strategies.

Mahani Stapa, Language Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Mahani Binti Stapa is currently a Senior Lecturer at the Language Academy, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). She is currently supervising students at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Her research interests are related to Second Language Writing, Bilingualism, Multilingualism, Academic Literacy and Testing and Evaluation


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How to Cite
Jeevaratnam, J. A., & Stapa, M. (2022). EXPLORING METACOGNITIVE READING STRATEGIES USED BY LOW AND HIGH PROFICIENCY FORM THREE ESL STUDENTS. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 7(1), 335-365. https://doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol7iss1pp335-365