• Azhana Othman Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Melaka, Malaysia
  • Abd Halim Mohd Noor Faculty of Business and Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Melaka, Malaysia
  • Mohamed Saladin Abdul Rasool Centre for Islamic Philanthropy and Social Finance (CIPSF), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Melaka, Malaysia.
  • Eley Suzana Kasim Accounting Research Institute (ARI), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.


Background and Purpose: Poverty, despite being a multifaceted concept, is commonly measured in either absolute or relative monetary terms. However, it can also be measured subjectively, as people form perceptions on their relative income, welfare, and life satisfaction. Poverty measurement based on objective indicators such as official poverty lines is often used to orient and prioritize policy actions. However, such ‘standard’ poverty measures based on household consumption or income aggregates have several shortcomings. This objective indicator does little to inform policy makers about public preferences. The main goal of this paper is to investigate multifaceted poverty measurement by combining objective and subjective measures to provide useful insights into poverty in Malaysia. In addition, this study explored the multifaceted poverty incidence among the low-income household from the perspective of zakat applicants.


Methodology: Data was collected using a survey and interviews of zakat applicants under the category of poor and needy in the State Islamic Religious Council (SIRC) of Melaka, one of the states in Malaysia. Three poverty measurements, i.e., Poverty Line Income (PLI), Haddul Kifayah and Subjective Poverty Index (SPI), are utilized in this study.

Findings: The PLI and Haddul Kifayah are categorized as objective poverty measures, while SPI is categorized as a subjective poverty measure. The different measures of poverty would produce different analytical results that, in turn, call for a different set of policy interventions.


Contributions: These findings point to the needs of tailor-made strategies for the society to cope with multifaceted poverty.


Keywords: Multifaceted poverty, objective poverty, subjective poverty, poverty measurement, zakat recipients.


Cite as: Othman, A., Mohd Noor, A. H., Abdul Rasool, M. S., & Kasim, E. S. (2023). Determination of poverty using multi-faceted measures: Evidence from zakat applicants.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 8(TI), 62-86.


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How to Cite
Othman, A., Mohd Noor, A. H., Abdul Rasool, M. S., & Kasim, E. S. (2023). DETERMINATION OF POVERTY USING MULTI-FACETED MEASURES: EVIDENCE FROM ZAKAT APPLICANTS. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 8(3), 62-86.