• Nurhidayah Yahya Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Jamaliah Said Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Nor Balkish Zakaria Accounting Research Institute, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, 40450 Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Milen Baltov Faculty of Business Studies, Burgas Free University, Bulgaria.


Background and Purpose: Using the Social Contract Theory underpinning, this research examines the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and accountability within Malaysian statutory bodies.


Methodology: A quantitative approach was employed to gather data from 195 online surveys distributed to CEOs of Malaysian statutory bodies. 186 usable responses were obtained for further analysis. Statistical techniques were applied to assess the relationship between HRM and accountability.


Findings: The study’s results reveal a positive and significant relationship between HRM practices and accountability within Malaysian statutory bodies. These findings highlight the critical role of HRM in promoting accountability and ensuring the successful fulfilment of socioeconomic obligations in emerging countries like Malaysia.


Contributions: This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the association between HRM and accountability in Malaysian statutory bodies. Additionally, it incorporates the Social Contract Theory to provide a unique theoretical lens for understanding this relationship.


Keywords: Human resource management, accountability, Malaysian statutory bodies, social contract theory.

Cite as: Yahya, N., Said, J., Zakaria, N. B., & Baltov, M. (2023). Enhancing organisational accountability: The role of human resource management in Malaysian statutory bodies.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 8(TI), 453-479. http://dx.doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol8issTIpp453-479


Abdul Kadir, A. L., & Ismail, M. (1997). Hubungan keberkesanan latihan dengan prestasi kerja. Pertanika Journal of Social Science & Humanities, 5(2), 73–82.

Acker, W. Van., & Bouckaert, G. (2018). What makes public sector innovations survive? An exploratory study of the influence of feedback, accountability and learning. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 84(2), 249–268.

Adams, C. A., & McNicholas, P. (2007). Making a difference: Sustainability reporting, accountability and organisational change. Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 20(3), 382–402.

Ahmad, S., & Schroeder, R. G. (2003). The impact of human resource management practices on operational performance: Recognising country and industry differences. Journal of Operations Management, 21(1), 19–43.

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, C. A. (2007). Likert scales and data analyses. Quality Progress, 40(7), 64-65.

Al-Qudah, S., Obeidat, A. M., Shrouf, H., & Abusweilem, M. A. (2020). The impact of strategic human resources planning on the organizational performance of public shareholding companies in Jordan. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 18(1), 219–230.

Al-Ziyadi, N., Movaghar, M., & Thani, M. A. (2022). Investigating the impact of justice and trust on the resilience of human resources and the maintenance and sustainability of human resources (Case study: Employees of the general water department of Mothni Province, Iraq). World Bulletin of Management and Law, 14(1), 62–83.

Amin, M., Wan Ismail, W. K., Abdul Rasid, S. Z., & Selemani, R. D. A. (2014). The impact of human resource management practices on performance: Evidence from a public university. The TQM Journal, 26(2), 125–142.

Ammeter, A. P., Douglas, C., Ferris, G. R., & Goka, H. (2004). A social relationship conceptualisation of trust and accountability in organizations. Human Resource Management Review, 14(1), 47–65.

Ananzeh, H., Alshurafat, H., Bugshan, A., & Hussainey, K. (2022). The impact of corporate governance on forward-looking CSR disclosure. Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, 1(1), 1-35.

Anwar, G., & Abdullah, N. N. (2021). The impact of human resource management practice on organizational performance. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management, 5(1), 35–47.

Arbatani, T. R., Farhangi, A. A., & Dadashzadeh, Y. (2016). Framing the current challenges and trends in human resource management. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 1(May), 589–600.

Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2020). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice (15th ed.). Kogan Page Publishers.

Arulrajah, A. A. (2016). Literature review on good governance in the organizations through human resource management: A corporate level analysis. International Business Research, 9(8), 14–23.

Aruna, P. (2018, November 5). Towards transparency in government spending. The Star. https://www.thestar.com.my/business/business-news/2018/11/05/towards-transparency-in-government-spending/

Asian Productivity Organization. (2021). APO productivity databook 2021. APO. https://www.apo-tokyo.org/publications/apo-databook-2021/

Azmi, F. T., & Mushtaq, S. (2015). Role of line managers in human resource management: Empirical evidence from India. The International Journal of Human, 26(5), 616–639.

Azmi, I. A. G. (2010). Competency-based human resource practices in Malaysian public sector organizations. African Journal of Business Management, 4(2), 235–241.

Azmi, I. A. G. (2015). Islamic human resource practices and organizational performance. Some findings in a developing country. Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 6(1), 2–18.

Bågenholm, A., Bauhr, M., Grimes, M., & Rothstein, B. (2021). Quality of government: Why-what-how. In A. Bågenholm, M. Bauhr, M. Grimes, & B. Rothstein (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of the quality of government (1st ed.). Open University Press.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Heatherton, T. F. (1994). A general approach to representing multifaceted personality constructs: Application to state self-esteem. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 1(1), 35–67.

Bagozzi, R. P., Yi, Y., & Philips, L. W. (1991). Assessing construct validity in organizational research. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36(1), 421–458.

Baker, D. (1999). Strategic human resource management: Performance, alignment, management. Librarian Career Development, 7(5), 51–63.

Barrena-Martinez, J., López-Fernández, M., & Romero-Fernandez, P. M. (2018). Drivers and barriers in socially responsible human resource management. Sustainability, 10(5), 1532.

Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A., & Ulrich, D. (2001). The HR scorecard. Linking people, strategy, and performance. Harvard Business Press.

Beh, L.-S. (2014). Public sector performance in Malaysia: An evaluation of employee empowerment and self-leadership. Research Journal of Economic, Business and ICT, 9(1), 8–12.

Beh, L.-S. (2018). Leadership and public sector reform in Malaysia. In E. Berman & E. Prasojo (Eds.), Leadership and public sector reform in Asia (Public policy and governance, volume 30) (pp. 207–230). Emerald Publishing Limited.

Beh, L.-S. (2012). Performance management and HR strategies: The public sector in Malaysia. The 6th International Days of Statistics and Economics, 1(1), 104–112.

Behn, R. D. (2001). Rethinking democratic accountability. Brookings Institution Press.

Bercu, A.-M., & Grigoruţă, M. V. B. (2012). Human resource involvement in Romanian public organizations under the financial constraints. Procedia Economics and Finance, 3(1), 451–456.

Bonavia, T., & Marin-Garcia, J. A. (2011). Integrating human resource management into lean production and their impact on organisational performance. International Journal of Manpower, 32(8), 923–938.

Bovens, M. (2007). Analysing and assessing accountability: A conceptual framework. European Law Journal, 13(4), 447–468.

Bovens, M. (2010). Two concepts of accountability: Accountability as a virtue and as a mechanism. West European Politics, 33(5), 946–967.

Bovens, M., Goodin, R., & Schillemans, T. (2014). The Oxford handbook of public accountability. Oxford University Press.

Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. The Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 203–221.

Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2017). Human resource management: Theory and practice (6th ed.). MacMillan Education.

Brennan, N. M., & Solomon, J. (2008). Corporate governance, accountability and mechanisms of accountability: An overview. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, 21(7), 885–906.

Brenya Bonsu, A., Appiah, K. O., Gyimah, P., & Owusu-Afriyie, R. (2023). Public sector accountability: Do leadership practices, integrity and internal control systems matter? IIM Ranchi Journal of Management Studies, 2(1), 4–15.

Cabello-Medina, C., Lopez-Cabrales, A., & Valle-Cabrera, R. (2011). Leveraging the innovative performance of human capital through HRM and social capital in Spanish firms leveraging the innovative performance of human capital through HRM and social capital in Spanish firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 807–828.

Camelo, C., Martín, F., Romero, P. M., & Valle, R. (2004). Human resources management in Spain: Is it possible to speak of a typical model? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(6), 935–958.

Chand, M., & Katou, A. A. (2007). The impact of HRM practices on organisational performance in the Indian hotel industry. Employee Relations, 29(6), 576–594.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least square approach to structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern applied science (pp. 295–336). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

CIPFA & IFAC. (2013). Good Governance in the Public Sector — Consultation Draft for an International Framework. Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy and the International Federation of Accountants. https://www.ifac.org/_flysystem/azure-private/publications/files/Good-Governance-in-the-Public-Sector.pdf

Darwish, T. K., Singh, S., & Wood, G. (2015). The impact of human resource practices on actual and perceived organisational performance in a middle eastern emerging market. Human Resource Management, 55(2), 261-281.

Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2006). Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. British Journal of Management, 17(1), 263–282.

Do, H., Budhwar, P. S., & Patel, C. (2018). Relationship between innovation-led HR policy, strategy and firm performance: A serial mediation investigation. Human Resource Management, 57(7), 1271–1284.

Docherty, P., Kira, M., & (Rami) Shani, A. B. (2009). Organisational development for social sustainability in work systems. In R. W. Woodman, W. A. Pasmore, & A. (Rami) Shani (Eds.), Research in organizational change and development (pp. 77–144). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1994). Toward a unified conception of business social ethics: Integrative contracts theory. The Academy of Management Review, 19(2), 252–284.

Donaldson, T., & Dunfee, T. W. (1999). Ties that bind: A social contracts approach to business ethics. Harvard Business Press.

Dubnick, M. J., & Frederickson, H. G. (2011). Public accountability: Performance measurement, the extended state and the search for trust. National Academy of Public Administration & The Kettering Foundation.

Ebrahim, A. (2005). Accountability Myopia: Losing sight of organizational learning. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 34(1), 56–87.

Edwards, J. R. (2001). Multidimensional constructs in organizational behavior research: An integrative analytical framework. Organisational Research Methods, 4(2), 144–192.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variable and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Frink, D. D., & Klimoski, R. J. (2004). Advancing accountability theory and practice: Introduction to the human resource management review special edition. Human Resource Management Review, 14(1), 1–17.

Givan, R. K. (2005). Seeing stars: Human resources performance indicators in the national health service. Personnel Review, 34(6), 634–647.

Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organisational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.

Gooderham, P., Morley, M. J., Parry, E., & Stavrou, E. (2015). National and firm-level drivers of the devolution of HRM decision making to line managers. Journal of International Business Studies, 46(6), 715–723.

Guest, D., & Conway, N. (2011). The impact of HR practices, HR effectiveness and a ‘strong HR system’ on organisational outcomes: A stakeholder perspective. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(8), 1686–1702.

Guest, D. E., Michie, J., Conway, N., & Sheehan, M. (2003). Human resource management and corporate performance in the UK. British Journal of Management Relations, 41(2), 291–314.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications Inc.

Hanretty, C., & Koop, C. (2014). Independence, accountability, and the quality of regulatory decision-making. Comparative Political Studies, 51(1), 38–75.

Hanretty, C., Larouche, P., & Reindl, A. (2012). Independence, accountability and perceived quality of regulators. Centre on Regulation in Europe.

Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants. (2004). Corporate governance for public bodies, a basic framework. CPA. https://www.hkicpa.org.hk/-/media/HKICPA-Website/HKICPA/section4_cpd/Continuing-Professinoal-Development-Programme-(CPD)/eframework_guide.pdf

Hyndman, N., & Liguori, M. (2016). Public sector reforms: Changing contours on an NPM landscape. Financial Accountability & Management, 32(1), 5–32.

IFAC. (2001). Governance in the public sector: A governing body perspective. International Federation of Accountants. https://www.ifac.org/_flysystem/azure-private/publications/files/study-13-governance-in-th.pdf

IFAC & CIPFA. (2014). International framework: Good governance in the public sector. Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy and the International Federation of Accountants. file:///Users/user/Downloads/International-Framework-Good-Governance-in-the-Public-Sector-IFAC-CIPFA%20(1).pdf

Kang, Y.-C., Hsiao, H.-S., & Ni, J.-Y. (2022). The role of sustainable training and reward in influencing employee accountability perception and behavior for corporate sustainability. Sustainability, 14(18), 11589.

Kathuria, R., & Partovi, F. Y. (1999). Work force management practices for manufacturing flexibility. Journal of Operations Management, 18(1), 21–39.

Khalid, M. A., Alam, M. M., & Said, J. (2016). Empirical assessment of good governance in the public sector of Malaysia. Economics & Sociology, 9(4), 289–304.

Kolk, A. (2008). Sustainability, accountability and corporate governance: Exploring multinationals’ reporting practices. Business Strategy and the Environment, 17(1), 1–15.

Lee, F.-H., Lee, T.-Z., & Wu, W.-Y. (2010). The relationship between human resource management practices, business strategy and firm performance: Evidence from steel industry in Taiwan. The International Journal of Human, 21(9), 1351–1372.

Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Beck, T. E., & Lengnick-Hall, M. L. (2011). Developing a capacity for organizational resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 21(1), 243–255.

Li, J., Jia, L., Cai, Y., Kwan, H. K., & You, S. (2020). Employee – Organisation relationships and team performance: Role of team collective efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(206), 1–14.

Lindell, M. K., & Whitney, D. J. (2001). Accounting for common method variance in cross-sectional research designs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 114–121.

Lindkvist, L., & Llewellyn, S. (2003). Accountability, responsibility and organization. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 19(1), 251–273.

Liu, L. A. (2023). From great resignation to great re-negotiation on space and time for more holistic individuals and organisations. Personnel Review, 52(2), 434–441.

Lloyd, R., Oatham, J., & Hammer, M. (2007). 2007 global accountability report. One World Trust. https://www.oneworldtrust.org/uploads/1/0/8/9/108989709/2007_gar_briefing.pdf

Lloyd, R., Warren, S., & Hammer, M. (2008). 2008 global accountability report. One World Trust. https://www.oneworldtrust.org/uploads/1/0/8/9/108989709/2008_global_accountability_report.pdf

Mabillard, V., & Zumofen, R. (2016). The complex relationship between transparency and accountability: A synthesis and contribution to existing frameworks. Public Policy and Administration, 32(2), 110–129.

MacKelprang, A. W., Jayaram, J., & Xu, K. (2012). The influence of types of training on service system performance in mass service and service shop operations. International Journal of Production Economics, 138(1), 183–194.

Mayrhofer, W., Gooderham, P. N., & Brewster, C. (2019). Context and HRM: Theory, evidence, and proposals. International Studies of Management & Organization, 49(4), 355–371.

Menezes, L. M. De., & Kelliher, C. (2011). Flexible working and performance: A systematic review of the evidence for a business case. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13(1), 452–474.

Messersmith, J. G., & Guthrie, J. P. (2010). High performance work systems in emergent organisations: Implications for firm performance. Human Resource Management, 49(2), 241–264.

Midin, M., Joseph, C., & Mohamad, N. (2016). Advancing sustainable development in the public sector via stakeholders’ engagement disclosure website. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224(1), 93–100.

Millar, P., & Stevens, J. (2012). Management training and national sport organization managers: Examining the impact of training on individual and organizational performances. Sport Management Review, 15(3), 288–303.

Mohamad, M. H., Daud, Z., & Yahya, K. K. (2014). Impact on employees’ good governance characteristics, the role of transformational leadership as determinant factor. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology, 3(1), 320–338.

Mohiuddin, M., Hosseini, E., Faradonbeh, S. B., & Sabokro, M. (2022). Achieving human resource management sustainability in universities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(928), 1–19.

Neumann, W. P., & Dul, J. (2010). Human factors: Spanning the gap between OM and HRM. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 30(9), 923–950.

Nurdiono, & Gamayuni, R. R. (2018). The effect of internal auditor competency on internal audit quality and its implication on the accountability of local government. European Research Studies Journal, 21(4), 426–434.

Nyamita, M. O., Dorasamy, N., & Garbharran, H. L. (2015). A review of public sector financial management reforms: An international perspective. Public and Municipal Finance, 4(2), 25–37.

OECD. (2013). Accountability and democratic governance: Orientations and principles for development. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://www.oecd.org/governance/accountability-and-democratic-governance-9789264183636-en.htm

OECD. (2022). OECD data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. https://data.oecd.org/gdp/gross-domestic-product-gdp.htm

Pfeffer, J. (1998). Seven practices of successful organisations. California Management Review, 40(2), 96–124.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, N. (2012). Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it. Annual Review Psychology, 63(1), 539–569.

Pollitt, C. (2003). The essential public manager. Open University Press.

Reichersdorfer, J., Christensen, T., & Vrangbaek, K. (2013). Accountability of immigration administration: Comparing crises in Norway, Denmark and Germany. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 79(2), 271–291.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Becker, J.-M. (2015). SmartPLS 3. SmartPLS GmbH.

Romzek, B. S. (2000). Dynamics of public sector accountability in an era of reform. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66(100), 21–44.

Romzek, B. S., & Dubnick, M. J. (1987). Accountability in the public sector: Lessons from the challenger tragedy. Public Administration Review, 47(3), 227–238.

Rönkkö, M., & Ylitalo, J. (2011). PLS marker variable approach to diagnosing and controlling for method variance. Thirty Second International Conference on Information Systems, 8(12), 1–16.

Salleh, K. M., Ahmad, M., Sulaiman, N., & Latiff, A. A. (2016). The development of human resource competency model in public sector organizations in Malaysia. Indian Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, 14(14), 10221–10234.

Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (1993). The service organization: Human resources management is crucial. Organisational Dynamics, 21(4), 39–52.

Seidman, H. (1954). The government corporation: Organization and controls. Public Administration Review, 14(3), 183–192.

Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2016). Research methods for business. A skill building approach (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Shahzad, K., Bashir, S., & Ramay, M. I. (2008). Impact of HR practices on perceived performance of university teachers in Pakistan. International Review of Business Research Papers, 4(2), 302–315.

Siddiquee, N. A. (2005). Public accountability in Malaysia: Challenges and critical concerns. International Journal of Public Administration, 28(1), 107–129.

Siddiquee, N. A. (2006). Public management reform in Malaysia. recent initiatives and experiences. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 19(4), 339–358.

Siddiquee, N. A. (2010). Combating corruption and managing integrity in Malaysia: A critical overview of recent strategies and initiatives. Public Organization Review, 10(2), 153–171.

Siddiquee, N. A. (2014). Malaysia s government transformation programme: A preliminary assessment. Intellectual Discourse, 22(1), 7–31.

Sikora, D., Ferris, G. R., Way, A., & Box, P. O. (2011). Critical factors in human resource practice implementation: Implications of cross-cultural contextual issues. International Journal Human Resources Development and Management, 11(2/3/4), 112–140.

Skaggs, B. C., & Youndt, M. (2004). Strategic positioning, human capital, and performance in service organisations: A customer interaction approach. Strategic Management Journal, 25(1), 85–99.

Su, D. N., Tra, D. L., Huynh, H. M. T., Nguyen, H. H. T., & O’Mahony, B. (2021). Current issues in tourism enhancing resilience in the Covid-19 crisis: Lessons from human resource management practices in Vietnam. Current Issues in Tourism, 24(22), 3189-3205.

Tabouli, E. M. A., Habtoor, N. A., & Nashief S. M. (2016). The impact of human resources management on employee performance: Organizational commitment mediator variable. Asian Social Science, 12(9), 176–192.

Taha, R., & Taha, N. (2022). The role of human resources management in enhancing the economic sustainability of Jordanian banks. Journal of Business and Socio-economic Development, 3(2), 180-193.

Tan, T. J. A., Erlina, & Khadafi, M. (2021). The effect of good governance implementation, financial management, quality of human resources, community participation and supervision on village financial accountability in Deli Serdang regency. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Finance, 4(1), 1-10.

Thompson, J. A., & Hart, D. W. (2006). Psychological contracts: A nano-level perspective on social contract theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 68(1), 229–241.

Tiwari, P., & Saxena, K. (2012). Human resource management practices: A comprehensive review. Pakistan Business Review, 9(2), 669–705.

Tzafrir, S. S. (2006). A universalistic perspective for explaining the relationship between HRM practices and firm performance at different points in time. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(2), 109–130.

Ulrich, D., Younger, J., Brockbank, W., & Ulrich, M. D. (2013). The state of the HR profession. Human Resource Management, 52(3), 457–471.

Vanhala, S., & Tuomi, K. (2006). HRM, company performance and employee well-being. Management Revue, 17(3), 241–255.

Vivares-Vergara, J. A., Sarache-Castro, W. A., & Naranjo-Valencia, J. C. (2016). Impact of human resource management on performance in competitive priorities. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 36(2), 114–134.

Wall, T. D., & Wood, S. J. (2005). The romance of human resource management and business performance, and the case for big science. Human Relations, 58(4), 429–462.

Wang, C. J. (2019). Linking sustainable human resource management in hospitality: An empirical investigation of the integrated mediated moderation model. Sustainability, 11(4), 1066.

Wright, P. M., & Gardner, T. M. (2003). The human resource-firm performance relationship: Methodological and theoretical challenges. In D. Holman, T. D. Wall, C. W. Clegg, P. Sparrow, & A. Howard (Eds.), The new workplace: A guide to the human impact of modern working practices (pp. 311–328). John Wiley & Sons.

Wu, B. (2020). Introduction to government performance management. Springer.

Yahya, N. (2022). The effects of governance mechanisms on organisational accountability of Malaysian statutory bodies. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Universiti Teknologi MARA.

Zakaria, N., Mohamed Zainal, S. R., & Mohd. Nasurdin, A. (2011). Investigating the role of human resource management practices on the performance of SME: A conceptual framework. Journal of Global Management, 3(1), 74–92.

How to Cite
Yahya, N., Said, J., Zakaria, N. B., & Baltov, M. (2023). ENHANCING ORGANISATIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY: THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIAN STATUTORY BODIES. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 8(3), 453-479. https://doi.org/10.24200/jonus.vol8iss3pp453-479