Exploring the Feasibility and Effectiveness of Phytoremediation for Environmental Restoration: A Review

  • Mohd Zuhairi Zakaria HZN Associates (M) Sdn Bhd
  • Azman Azid School of Animal Science, Aquatic Science and Environment, Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Malaysia http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5015-9712
  • Mohd Saiful Samsudin School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  • Ku Mohd Kaulkausar Ku Yusof Faculty of Science and Marine Environment, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21300, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia


The debate on the applicability, cost-effectiveness, and efficiency of phytoremediation as a plant-based treatment to clean the environment is intensifying. Phytoremediation is the application of plants, microbes, nutrients, and/or agronomic techniques to soil, sediment, and water resources to contain or neutralize contaminants. Phytoremediation serves multiple goals, including soil stabilization, erosion control, and enhancement of wildlife habitat. Plants can absorb, translocate, transform, and immobilize hazardous metals, thereby lowering their toxicity and environmental concentration. This process is widely used in industry nowadays due to being both cost-effective and ecologically friendly. However, there is no denying that each process has its own pros and cons. There is no perfect process. Thus, this review aims to provide researchers of environmental science with a better understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of this method.

Author Biography

Mohd Zuhairi Zakaria, HZN Associates (M) Sdn Bhd

No.13 (1st Floor), Jalan Majistret U1/26, Seksyen U1, Hicom Glenmarie Industrial Park, 40150 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

How to Cite
Zakaria, M. Z., Azid, A., Samsudin, M. S., & Ku Yusof, K. M. K. (2023). Exploring the Feasibility and Effectiveness of Phytoremediation for Environmental Restoration: A Review. Malaysian Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(2), 111-135. https://doi.org/10.37231/myjas.2023.8.2.373
Review Article