• Siti Shuhaida Shukor Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia.
  • Noor Alhusna Madzlan Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Languages and Communication, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia.


Background and Purpose: ESL learners found themselves engulfed with extreme anxiety when it comes to speaking in public. This study investigated the use of vlogs in managing anxiety between male and female undergraduate students and examined whether there is an interaction exists between both genders during the intervention that may influence the outcomes.


Methodology: This study employed a quasi-experimental design with a total of N=53 (15 males, 38 females) ESL participants from one public university in Malaysia. Before and after the intervention, a set of 'Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety (PRPSA) questionnaires were administered. A 2x2 between subjects factorial ANCOVA (or two-way ANCOVA) was computed by controlling the pre-test scores. After controlling for the pre-test as covariate, the two-way ANCOVA was performed to see if there was an interaction impact between gender (male vs female) and treatments (with and without vlogs) in terms of anxiety level scores.


Findings: In comparison to the control group, the experimental group performed better with F(1, 48)=6.695, p<.05, which showed that undergraduate students in the experimental group displayed less anxiety when using vlogs as compared to the treatment group. However, there was no significant difference of gender influence on the effectiveness of vlogs on learners’ anxiety with F(1, 48)=1.552, p>.05, Eta-squared = .03 when using vlogs. Nonetheless, there was a significant interaction between treatment groups and gender with F(1,48)=5.22, p<.05 which indicated that the relationship between the covariate and the dependent variable is different for each treatment group.


Contributions: This study is hoped not only to encourage ESL educators to make use of vlogs in their teaching and learning, but also to inform researchers with similar interest to consider the existence of covariates of the participants that might have impacted the research outcomes.


Keywords: Speaking, anxiety, covariates interaction, gender differences, vlogs.


Cite as: Shukor, S. S., & Madzlan, N. A. (2022). Gender interaction between covariates in managing anxiety via vlogs.  Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(2), 1-20.


Abdul Rahman, A. M. (2018). English writing performance using blended learning in TVET education. Language Literacy, 2(1), 28–36.

Aida, Y. (1994). Examination of Homitz, Horwitz, and Cope's construct of foreign language anxiety: The case of students of Japanese. Modem Language Journal, 78(2), 155–168.

Alamer, A., & Almulhim, F. (2021). The interrelation between language anxiety and self-determined motivation; A mixed methods approach. Frontiers in Education, 6(618655), 1-12.

Alm, A. (2009). Blogging for self-determination with L2 student journals. Handbook of research on Web 2.0 and second language learning. IGI Global.

Arafah, B., Yassi, H., & Imran, N. (2016). Correlation between level of anxiety and public speaking performance through systematic learning approach in foreign language. International Journal of Science and Research, 5(9), 1658–1663.

Cakir, I. (2006). The use of audio-visual material in foreign language teaching classroom. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 4(5), 67–72.

Chen, P. S. D., Lambert, A. D., & Guidry, K. R. (2010). Engaging online students: The impact of web-based learning technology on college student engagement. Computers and Education, 54(4), 1222–1232.

Clements, K., & Turpin, G. (1996). The life events scale for students: Validation for use with British samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(6), 747–751.

Daly, J. A., Vangelisti, A. L., Neel, H. L., & Cavanaugh, P. D. (1989). Pre performance concern associated with public speaking anxiety. Communication Quarterly, 37(1), 39–53.

David, A. R., Thang, S. M., & Azman, H. (2015). Accommodating low proficiency students’ language learning needs through an online writing support system. e-Bangi, 10(1), 118-271.

Dellah, N. F., Zabidin, N., Nordin, N. A., Amanah, F. H., & Atan, M. A. (2020). Anxiety: Evaluating university students’ speaking anxiety in English oral presentations. Jurnal ILMI, 10(1), 116–126.

Earle-Carlin, S., Snow, M. A., Zwier, L. J., & Zimmerman, C. B. (2011). Q: Skills for success. Listening and speaking. Oxford University Press.

Engqvist, L. (2005). The mistreatment of covariate interaction terms in linear model analyses of behavioural and evolutionary ecology studies. Animal Behaviour, 70(1), 967–971.

Fill, K., & Ottewill, R. (2006). Sink or swim: Taking advantage of developments in video streaming. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 43(4), 397–408.

Gorturk, N. (2018). Test of English language learning (TELL). Language Assessment Quarterly, 15(2), 1-8.

Graduates Statistics. (2020). Department of Statistics Malaysia.

Grieve, R., Woodley, J., Hunt, S. E., & McKay, A. (2021). Student fears of oral presentations and public speaking in higher education: A qualitative survey. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 45(9), 1281–1293.

Hakkarainen, K., Paavola, S., Kangas, K., & Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P. (2013). Socio-cultural perspectives on collaborative learning: Towards collaborative knowledge creation. In C. Hmelo-Silver, C. Chinn, C. Chan, & A. O’Donnell (Eds.), International
handbook of collaborative learning (pp. 57–73). Routledge.

Hallmark, J. R., Hanson, T. L., Padwick, G., Abel, D., & Stewart, P. (1993). Communication apprehension remediation: The interaction effect of video self-observation and gender. (Report No. CS508383). Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication

Harasim, L. (2000). Shift happens: Online education as a new paradigm in learning. Internet and Higher Education, 3(1–2), 41–61.

Hirschmann, P. (2022). Students in public higher education institutions in Malaysia 2012-2020, by gender.

Hung, S. T. (2011). Pedagogical applications of vlogs: An investigation into ESP students’ perceptions. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 736–746.

Karatas, H., Alci, B., Bademcioglu, M., & Ergin, A. (2016). An investigation into university students’ foreign language speaking anxiety. Procedia – Social behavioral Sciences, 232(1), 382–388.

Kasuma, S. A. A. (2017). Four characteristics of Facebook activities for English language learning: A study of Malaysian university students’ needs and preferences. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(3), 155–171.

Knogler, M., Harackiewicz, J. M., Gegenfurtner, A., & Lewalter, D. (2015). How situational is situational interest? Investigating the longitudinal structure of situational interest. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 43(1), 39–50.

Krashen, S. D. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Pergamon Press.

Lai, C. (2015). Modeling teachers’ influence on students’ self-directed use of technology for language learning outside the classroom. Computers & Education, 82(1), 74–83.

Lee, M. J. W., McLoughlin, C., & Chan, A. (2008). Talk the talk: Student-generated podcasts as catalysts for knowledge creation. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(3), 501–521.

Leeds, E. M., & Maurer, R. A. (2009). Using digital video technology to reduce communication apprehension in business education. INFORMS Transactions on Education, 9(2), 84–92.

LeFebvre, L., LeFebvre, L. E., Allen, M., Buckner, M. M., & Griffin, D. (2020). Metamorphosis of public speaking anxiety: Student fear transformation throughout the introductory communication course. Communication Studies, 71(1), 98–111.

Levitt, E. E. (1980). The psychology of anxiety. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Madzlan, N. A., Goh, H. S., & Kesevan, H. V. (2020). Use of video blogs in alleviating public speaking anxiety among students. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 7(1), 93–99.

Matsuda, S., & Gobel, P. (2004). Anxiety and predictors of performance in the foreign language classroom. System, 32(1), 21–36.

McCroskey, J. C. (2013). Personal report of public speaking anxiety (PRPSA).

Melor, M. Y., & Rashidah, K. R. N. (2011). Motivation and attitude for learning English among year six students in primary rural school. Procedia Social & Behavioral Sciences, 15(1), 2631–2636.

Mohtasham, L., & Farnia, M. (2017). English speaking anxiety: A study of the effect of gender on Iranian EFLl university students’ perceptions. International Journal of Research in English Education, 2(4), 66–79.

Mraz, J. (2016). Why millennials love online video content and why you should focus on them?

Mohamed Radhi, N. A. (2019, May 19). Call for comprehensive study into decline in English proficiency among students [NSTTV]. The Star.

Nor, K. M., Razali, M. M., Talib, N., Ahmad, N., Sakarji, S. R., Saferdin, W. A. A. W. M., & Nor, A. M. (2019). Students’ problem in learning English as a second language among MDAB students at UITM Malacca. International Journal of Humanities,
Philosophy, and Language, 2(7), 01–12.

North, M., & Rives, J. (2001). Virtual reality therapy in aid of public speaking. International Journal of Virtual Reality, 3(1), 2–7.

Özkan, C. (2019). The relationship between students’ success and their level of foreign language anxiety and the primary sources of foreign language speaking anxiety. (Unpublished master thesis). Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.

Öztürk, G., & Gürbüz, N. (2013). The impact of gender on foreign language speaking anxiety and motivation. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 70(1), 654–665.

Paola, D. M., Lombardo, R., Valeria, P., & Vincenzo, S. (2020). Do women shy away from public speaking? A field experiment. (IZA Discussion Papers. No. 12959). Institute of Labor Economics (IZA), Bonn.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants Part 1. On the Horizon, 9(5), 1–6.

Prentis, S. (2021). Speech anxiety in the communication classroom during the COVID-19 pandemic: Supporting student success. Frontiers in Communication, 6(1), 1-4.

Putra, I., Saukah, A., Basthomi, Y., & Irawati, E. (2020). The acceptance of the English language learning mobile application hello English across gender and experience differences. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(15),

Rahmawati, A. I. N., Ariffudin, I., & Mulawarman, M. (2018). Psychological experience dynamics of students with glossophobia through narrative counseling as seen from gender: A qualitative study. In 3rd ASEAN Conference on Psychology,
Counselling, and Humanities (ACPCH 2017) (pp. 5–9). Atlantis Press.

Seidi, M., & Ahmadi, H. (2016). The effects of watching videos in pre-reading on EFL learners’ reading comprehension and attitudes. TESOL International Journal, 11(2), 15–44.

Shukor, S. S., & Noordin, N. (2014). Effects of Facebook collaborative writing groups on undergraduates’ writing performance. International Journal of English Language Education, 2(2), 89–99.

Siemens, G. (2005). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 2(1), 3–10.

Sun, Y. C. (2009). Voice blog: An exploratory study of language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 13(2), 88–103.

Tan, H., & Xie, Z. (2021). Exploring the relationship between foreign language anxiety, gender, years of learning English and students’ oral English achievement amongst Chinese college students. English Language and Literature Studies, 10(3), 31-

Wang, T. (2010). Speaking anxiety: More of a function of personality than language achievement. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 33(5), 95–109.

Yawiloeng, R. (2020). Second language vocabulary learning from viewing video in an EFL classroom. English Language Teaching, 13(7), 76–87.

Zhao, Y. (2005). Technology and second language learning: Promises and problems. (Working Paper). Michigan State University.
How to Cite
Shukor , S. S., & Madzlan, N. A. (2022). GENDER INTERACTION BETWEEN COVARIATES IN MANAGING ANXIETY VIA VLOGS. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 7(2), 1-20.