• Siaw Yan-Li Faculty of Education, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Na Jiang Shanghai Municipal Institute for Lifelong Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.
  • Kanit Pamanee Office of Basic Education Commission, Ministry of Education, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • Joko Sriyanto Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


Background and Purpose: Online learning has become a new norm to higher education institutions in the developing countries since COVID-19 pandemic. An overnight shift from conventional physical learning to online learning in this pandemic moment has posed a major challenge to most of the educational institutions. Student’s readiness and satisfaction towards online learning activities are important to ensure the effectiveness of this new learning method. Therefore, this study aims to examine the online learning readiness and satisfaction among the university students from four Asian countries during COVID-19 pandemic. The domains of the examinations included student learning preference, self- direction, self-efficacy, and hardware-soft skill support.


Methodology: This survey research employed a quantitative approach to gather data. The sample respondents were 1,195 university students from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and China, selected using a simple random sampling method. Online questionnaires were distributed to the respondents, comprising 37 items including demographic profiles, satisfaction, and online learning readiness assessment. The survey responses were analysed descriptively and inferentially using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.


Findings: Results showed that 74.7% of the participants had a middle level of online learning readiness, and only 20.1% had high online learning readiness. The levels of online learning readiness varied among the participating countries. The participants lacked online learning preference, as shown in the lower mean scores compared to the means of self-direction, self-efficacy, and hardware-soft skill supports. For satisfaction, students reflected that online course required improvement, as observed in only 31% satisfaction with the online learning courses provided. The results also revealed that there was a significant positive correlation (r=.383) between online learning readiness and students’ satisfaction.


Contributions: This study provides preliminary insights into the preparedness of online learning in higher educational institutions in the Asian countries. It implies a potential disruptive impact on the educational system during the pandemic. Such perspectives are crucial for educators to understand students’ readiness and perceptions as a means of providing more effective online courses.


Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, online learning readiness, higher education, satisfaction.


Cite as: Yan-Li, S., Na, J., Pamanee, K., & Sriyanto, J. (2022). Online learning readiness and satisfaction during COVID-19 pandemic among university students in four Asian countries. Journal of Nusantara Studies, 7(2), 245-269.


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