Zamzam Water: Influence of Containers on Ionic Concentration and In-vitro Cytotoxic Effects on U87 Cell Line

  • Shariff Halim Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Nasir Mohamad Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Mohd Ekhwan Toriman Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
  • Ahmad Zubaidi A. Latif Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin

Abstract

Zamzam is holy water believed by Muslim to have remedial power for all kinds of diseases. It contains many electrolytes and the concentration of the electrolytes may be affected by the types of container used for its storage. This study was carried out to determine the difference in ions concentration of Zamzam water stored in plastic and glass containers, and to determine cytotoxicity effects of Zamzam water against U-87 cell line (human primary glioblastoma cell line). Ion Chromatography (IC) was used to analyze the concentration. The analyzed anions in the Zamzam water include bromide, chloride, phosphate, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate and fluoride whereas the cations were ammonium, lithium, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Subsequently, MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of Zamzam water on U-87 cell line. This study reveals that Zamzam water anions and cations concentration was not statistically significant neither in plastic nor glass container.  In addition, the Zamzam water did not cause any toxicity on the U87 cell line. We postulate that types of container do not have much influence on the ion concentration of Zamzam water and it is non-toxic on U87 cell line.

 

Keywords: Zamzam water; ion concentration; plastic; glass; U87 cell line.

Author Biographies

Shariff Halim, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Opiate Research Interest Group, Faculty of Medicine
Nasir Mohamad, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Opiate Research Interest Group, Faculty of Medicine
Mohd Ekhwan Toriman, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Opiate Research Interest Group, Faculty of Medicine
Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Opiate Research Interest Group, Faculty of Medicine
Ahmad Zubaidi A. Latif, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
Opiate Research Interest Group, Faculty of Medicine

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Published
2016-12-28
How to Cite
Halim, S., Mohamad, N., Toriman, M. E., Abu Bakar, N. H., & A. Latif, A. Z. (2016). Zamzam Water: Influence of Containers on Ionic Concentration and In-vitro Cytotoxic Effects on U87 Cell Line. Malaysian Journal of Applied Sciences, 1(1), 68-72. Retrieved from https://journal.unisza.edu.my/myjas/index.php/myjas/article/view/6
Section
Research Articles