Strategi Penyelidikan Islam Berdasarkan Kaedah Penaakulan dalam Ilmu Mantik

Shahir Akram Hassan, Mohd Syahmir Alias

Abstract


In conventional research strategies, research should be based on logical and empirical methods. To make it logical and empirical, usually the researchers will use inductive method or deductive method. Inductive method is a research strategy that concludes general conclusions from specific cases, while the deductive method is a formulation of specific conclusion based on general statements. The question is, whether the inductive method and deductive method is suitable as a research strategies which regard to the affairs of Islam that based on al-Qur'an and Hadith? Why don’t an Islamic research strategy be build by adapting mantiq that has been refined by Muslim scholars? This paper answers the questions with two objectives. First, to identify methods of reasoning in logic. Second, to analyze the strategy of research by the approach of mantiq reasoning. This paper handled by a documentary study and content analysis method. As a result, there are three methods of mantiq reasoning that can be used as Islamic research strategies. First, istiqra’; second, qiyas; and third, tamthil also known as qiyas usuli. The analysis also found that istiqra’, qiyas and tamthil are deeper methods and brought to the certainty level of knowledge.

 

Keywords: Islamic research strategies, logic (mantiq), inductive, deductive, analogy (tamthil)

 

 

ABSTRAK

 

Dalam strategi penyelidikan lazim, sesuatu penyelidikan yang dibuat mestilah berasaskan kaedah yang logik dan empirik. Bagi menjadikannya logik dan empirik, kebiasaannya para penyelidik akan menggunakan kaedah induktif atau kaedah deduktif. Kaedah induktif ialah strategi penyelidikan yang menyimpulkan rumusan umum daripada kes-kes khusus, manakala kaedah deduktif pula ialah strategi yang menyimpulkan rumusan khusus berasaskan pernyataan-pernyataan umum. Persoalannya, adakah kaedah induktif dan kaedah deduktif ini sesuai dijadikan strategi penyelidikan berkaitan hal ehwal Islam yang berpaksikan al-Qur’an dan Hadith? Mengapakah tidak dibina strategi penyelidikan Islam yang diadaptasi daripada ilmu mantik yang telah dihalusi oleh para ilmuwan Islam? Makalah ini menjawab persoalan tersebut melalui dua objektif. Pertama, mengenal pasti kaedah-kaedah penaakulan dalam ilmu mantik. Kedua, menganalisis strategi penyelidikan Islam berdasarkan kaedah-kaedah penaakulan ilmu mantik tersebut. Makalah ini menggunakan kajian dokumen dan kaedah analisis kandungan. Hasilnya, terdapat tiga kaedah penaakulan yang boleh digunakan dalam ilmu mantik sebagai strategi penyelidikan Islam. Pertama, istiqra’; kedua, qiyas; dan ketiga, tamthil atau dikenali sebagai qiyas usuli. Analisis ini juga mendapati kaedah istiqra’, qiyas dan tamthil lebih mendalam dan membawa kepada ilmu pada tahap yaqin.

 

Kata kunci: strategi penyelidikan Islam, ilmu mantik, istiqra’, qiyas, tamthil

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