THE DEVELOPMENT, TRANSLATION, AND VALIDATION OF MALAYSIAN SURVEY ON THE PROPENSITY TO VOLUNTEER
Abstract: This study aims to develop, translate and validate a newly developed Malaysian survey that assesses the propensity to volunteer through the employment of a 3-phase cross-sectional study. Phase 1 consisted of two components, content and face validity evaluation. A four-person expert panel was involved in the assessment of the content validity of the new survey. Meanwhile, the responses garnered from ten respondents representing the target population were used to evaluate face validity. Next, Phase 2 consisted of forward and backward translations, with an expert committee established to review the translated version. Finally, Phase 3 consisted of the employment of Cronbach’s Alpha utilised for the reliability analysis to test the internal consistency of the items. Subsequently, the SAS software was employed for data analysis. The findings indicated that out of 20 items, eight items showed the content validity indeks (I-CVI) value to be less than 0.78, and the expert panel omitted them from the survey in Phase 1. Phase 2 also included Cohen's Kappa Coefficient for all the items between the English and Malay version, which indicated a value of more than 0.62 and possessed good agreement. Moreover, in Phase 3, the Cronbach’s Alpha for the English and Malay version indicated excellent internal consistency (for both the language versions, the values were similar; 0.93). Thus, from the findings, it is evident that the English (MySPV-E) and Malay (MySPV-M ) versions of the survey are reliable, valid, and proved to be appropriate tools to assess an individual’s propensity to volunteer in a Malaysian population.
Keywords: Malaysian; Propensity to Volunteer; Survey; Translation; Validation
Abdullah Sahimi, N. A. H., Suandi, T., Ismail, I. A., & Hamzah, S. R. (2018). Profiling Youth Participation in Volunteer Activities in Malaysia: Understanding the Motivational Factors Influencing Participation in Volunteer Work among Malaysian Youth. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 26 (T): 49 - 62.
Al Mutawa, O. (2015). Impact of volunteer management practice on volunteer motivation and satisfaction to enhance volunteer retention [PhD Thesis]. Brunel University London.
Bales, K. (1996). Measuring the propensity to volunteer. Social Policy & Administration, 30(3), 206–226.
Boopathiraj, C., & Chellamani, K. (2013). Analysis of test items on difficulty level and discrimination index in the test for research in education. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 2(2), 189–193.
Bujang, M. A., Ab Ghani, P., Soelar, S. A., & Zulkifli, N. A. (2012). Sample size guideline for exploratory factor analysis when using small sample: Taking into considerations of different measurement scales. 2012 International Conference on Statistics in Science, Business, and Engineering, 1–5.
Cain, L., Orlowski, M., & Kitterlin-Lynch, M. (2021). A holistic investigation of special event volunteer motivation. Event Management.
Clary, E. G., Snyder, M., & Stukas, A. A. (1996). Volunteers’ motivations: Findings from a national survey. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 25(4), 485–505.
Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. ERIC.
Do Something Good. (2012, December 6). How big is volunteering in Malaysia? Do Something Good. https://www.dosomething.gd/volunteering-in-malaysia-the-big-picture/
Hopkins, C. D., & Antes, R. L. (1990). Classroom management and evaluation. FE Pencock Publishing, Inc. USA, 3rd Edition, c.
Ibrahim, F., & Amin, A. S. (2015). Penglibatan Dan Motivasi Kesukarelawanan: Ke Arah Memupuk Semangat Kesukarelawan Dalam Kalangan Mahasiswa (The Involvement and Motivation of Volunteerism: Toward Nurturing the Spirit of Volunteerism among Students). E-Bangi, 12(1), 15-25.
ILO. (2018). National practices in measuring volunteer work: A critical review. 20th International Conference of Labour Statisticians, Geneva. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---stat/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_636049.pdf
Kiran, S., & Krishnan, G. (2013). Stroke and aphasia quality of life scale in Kannada-evaluation of reliability, validity and internal consistency. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 16(3), 350-361.
Lee, Y., & Brudney, J. L. (2012). Participation in formal and informal volunteering: Implications for volunteer recruitment. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 23(2), 159–180.
Lin, E. L. A., Juan, W. L., Bidin, S., & Mariapan, M. (2020). Nature Conservation Volunteerism Among School Students. The Malaysian Forester, 83(1), 48–63.
Lough, B. (2009). Measuring volunteer outcomes: Development of the international volunteer impacts survey. (CSD Working Paper 09-31). St Louis, MO: Center for Social Development, Washington University.
NCVO. (2021). Volunteering. NCVO. https://almanac.fc.production.ncvocloud.net/volunteering/
Pande, S. S., Pande, S. R., Parate, V. R., Nikam, A. P., & Agrekar, S. H. (2013). Correlation between difficulty and discrimination indices of MCQs in formative exam in physiology. South-East Asian Journal of Medical Education, 7(1), 45–50.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2006). The content validity index: Are you sure you know what’s being reported? Critique and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 29(5), 489–497.
Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & Owen, S. V. (2007). Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Research in Nursing & Health, 30(4), 459–467.
Rosenthal, R. (1965). The volunteer subject. Human Relations, 18(4), 389–406.
Sallam, A. A. A., Abdullah, S., Ramli, A. J., Hussin, N. S., Ahmad, Z., & Bahari, A. (2018). Religiosity and Volunteering Intention among Undergraduate Malaysian Muslim Students. MATEC Web of Conferences, 150, 05100.
Sangoseni, O., Hellman, M., & Hill, C. (2013). Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess the effect of online learning on behaviors, attitudes, and clinical practices of physical therapists in the United States regarding evidenced-based clinical practice. Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 11(2), 1-7.
SAS Institute Inc. (2015). SAS® 9.4 In-Database Products: User’s Guide. SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, NC.
Shier, M. L., Larsen-Halikowski, J., & Gouthro, S. (2020). Characteristics of volunteer motivation to mentor youth. Children and Youth Services Review, 111, 104885.
Sowtali, S. N., Yusoff, D. M., Harith, S., & Mohamed, M. (2016). Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test. Journal of Arrhythmia, 32(2), 112–118.
Tavakol, M., & Dennick, R. (2011). Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 41-53.
Tsang, S., Royse, C. F., & Terkawi, A. S. (2017). Guidelines for developing, translating, and validating a questionnaire in perioperative and pain medicine. Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia, 11(1), S80.
Voicu, M., & Voicu, B. (2003). Volunteering in Romania. The Values of Volunteering, 143–159.
Wallin, P. (1949). Volunteer subjects as a source of sampling bias. American Journal of Sociology, 54(6), 539–544.
Yunus, A., Seet, W., Adam, B. M., & Haniff, J. (2013). Validation of the Malay version of Berlin questionaire to identify Malaysian patients for obstructive sleep apnea. Malaysian Family Physician: The Official Journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia, 8(1), 1-5.
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to transfer copyright. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. A notification will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.