• Abdul Halim Roslan School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Malaysia
  • Nur Jahan Ahmad School of Educational Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Gelugor, Malaysia


Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Gravi-STEM Module, which was developed by employing Sidek’s Module Development Model. Three experts in the fields of teaching and learning (T&L) and STEM education evaluated the content validity of the module. A pilot study was carried out on 30 students in a secondary school where the students participated in all of the Gravi-STEM Module’s specified activities to examine the reliability of the Gravi-STEM Module. Then, the students’ feedback was evaluated by filling out a module’s reliability questionnaire. From the viewpoint of experts‘ consensus, the module had good content validity and excellent reliability, with content validity coefficients of 0.88 and module reliability coefficients of 0.95, respectively. All of the experts’ suggestions and comments were taken into account, and modifications were made so that it could be used as an effective STEM teaching module. This module is intended to be an addition to the present STEM integration module and to effectively contribute to teachers and students conducting T&L using a STEM approach. Moreover, this study intends to provide an insight into the application of STEM T&L based on an Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) strategy that can assist the students in rectifying alternative concepts, improving Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), and stimulating their interest specifically in the gravitation topic in the Standard Based Curriculum for Secondary Schools (KSSM) Physics subject.

Keywords: STEM; module; physics; gravity; reliability


Abd Rahman, N., Halim, L., Ahmad, A. R., & Soh, T. M. T. (2018). Challenges of environmental education: Inculcating behavioural changes among Indigenous students. Creative Education, 9(1), 43-55. doi:10.4236/ce.2018.910

Ahmad, J. & Mohd, S. N. (2005). Pembinaan modul, bagaimana membina modul latihan dan modul akademik. Selangor, Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Alghamdi, A. K. H., & El-Hassan, W. S. (2020). Interdisciplinary inquiry-based teaching and learning of sustainability in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 22(2), 121-139.

Andaloro, G., Bellomonte, L., & Sperandeo‐Mineo, R. M. (1997). A computer‐based learning environment in the field of Newtonian mechanics. International Journal of Science Education, 19(6), 661-680.

Baharin, N., Kamarudin, N., & Manaf, U. K. A. (2018). Integrating STEM education approach in enhancing higher order thinking skills. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(7), 810-822.

Baldy, E. (2007). A new educational perspective for teaching gravity. International Journal of Science Education, 29(14), 1767-1788.

Beh, K. L. (2011). Motion under gravity: a creative lesson from the paradigm of constructivism/Beh Kian Lim. Asian Journal of University Education, 7(1), 1-15.

Boyle, J. (2019). Teaching gravitational waves in the lower secondary school. Part III. Monitoring the effect of a STEM intervention on students’ attitude, self-efficacy and achievement. Physics Education, 54(2), 025007.

Chia, S. C., Koay, K. C., Ooi, H. B., Mohd Khairul Anuar Md Mustafa, & Rema Ragavan (2019). KSSM Physics Form 4. Malaysia: Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.

Chiu, M. S. (2016). The challenge of learning physics before mathematics: A case study of curriculum change in Taiwan. Research in Science Education. 46(6), 767-786.

Colburn, A. (2000). An inquiry primer. Science Scope, 23(6), 42–44.

Cronbach, L. J. (1990). Essentials of Psychological Testing (5th ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins Publisher, Inc.

Demirci, N. (2005). A Study about Students' Misconceptions in Force and Motion Concepts by Incorporating a Web-Assisted Physics Program. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 4(3), 40-48.

Farrell, M. P., & Ventura, F. (1998). Words and understanding in physics. Language and Education, 12(4), 243-253.

Fuller, R. G. (2006). Numerical Computations in US Undergraduate Physics Courses. Computing in Science and Engineering, 8(5), 16-21.

Halim, L & Meerah, T. S. M. (2016). Science education research and practice in Malaysia. In Science education research and practice in Asia (pp. 71-93). Singapore: Springer.

Halloun, I. A., & Hestenes, D. (1985). Common Sense Concepts about Motion. American Journal of Physics. 53 (11), 1056-1065.

Ismail, A. T., & Ayop, S. K. (2016). Tahap kefahaman dan salah konsep terhadap konsep daya dan gerakan dalam kalangan pelajar tingkatan empat. Jurnal Fizik Malaysia. 37(1), 01090-01101.

Jamaludin Ahmad (2002). Kesahan, kebolehpercayaan dan keberkesanan modul program maju diri ke atas motivasi pencapaian di kalangan pelajar-pelajar sekolah menengah negeri Selangor. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Kamarudin, M. Y., Rahimi, N. M., Yusoff, N., Yamat@Ahmad, H., & Abdul Ghani, K. (2016). Inculcation of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) in Arabic Language Teaching at Malaysian Primary Schools. Creative Education, 7, 307-314.

Karpudewan, M., Zain, A. N. M., & Chandrasegaran, A. L. (2017). Overcoming Students' Misconceptions in Science. Singapore: Springer Nature Singapore Pte Limited.

Kavanagh, C. & Sneider, C. (2006). Learning about Gravity I. Free Fall: a guide for teachers and curriculum developers. Astronomy Education Review. 5. doi:10.3847/AER2006018.

Kavanagh, C., & Sneider, C. (2007). Learning about gravity I. Free fall: A guide for teachers and curriculum developers. Astronomy Education Review, 5(2), 21-52.

Keselman, A. (2003). Supporting inquiry learning by promoting normative understanding of multivariable causality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40, 898-921.

Khalijah, M. S., Deraman, M., Omar, R., Othman, M. Y. H., Samat, S., Jumali, H., & Yatim, B. (1995). Perception of the Malaysian secondary-school science- students toward physics. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 22(3), 238–241.

Lee, T. J., Kamarudin, N., Talib, O., & Hassan, A. (2017). How Does Inquiry-Based Instruction Affect Learning in a Secondary School Science Class?. In Empowering 21st Century Learners Through Holistic and Enterprising Learning (pp. 103-113). Singapore, Springer.

Maruthai, J. (2017). Stem Education in Malaysia: Barrier and challenges. In Proc. Int. Conf. Glob. Educ. VII “Humanising Technology” (pp. 1-2).

Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) (2020). Bersama-Sama Melangkah Lebih Jauh: Fokus & Gerak Kerja Ketua Pengarah Pelajaran Malaysia 2020. Ministry of Education Malaysia. Retrieved from

Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) (2012). Executive Summary, Malaysia Education Blueprint. Bahagian Pembangunan dan Dasar Pendidikan, MOE.

Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) (2013). Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025. Ministry of Education Malaysia.

Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) (2016). Malaysia Education Blueprint Annual Report 2015. Ministry of Education Malaysia

Mohd Majid Konting (1998). Kaedah Penyelidikan Pendidikan (4th Ed.). Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka.

Mohd Shahali, E. H., Halim, L., Rasul, M. S., Osman, K., & Mohamad Arsad, N. (2019). Students’ interest towards STEM: a longitudinal study. Research in Science and Technological Education, 37(1), 71–89.

Moore, S., & Dawson, V. (2015). Probing year 11 physics students' understandings of gravitation. Teaching Science, 61(4), 46-55.

Mufit, F. (2018). The Study of Misconceptions on Motion’s Concept and Remediate Using Real Experiment Video Analysis. doi:10.31227/

Nawi, A., Zakaria, G. A. N., Hashim, N., & Chua, C. R. (2015). Quality Assessment of Ipbl Modules: Aspects of Validity and Reliability. Journal of Quality Measurement and Analysis, 11(2), 1–10.

Neidorf, T., Arora, A., Erberber, E., Tsokodayi, Y., & Mai, T. (2020). Student Misconceptions and Errors in Physics and Mathematics: Exploring Data from TIMSS and TIMSS Advanced (p. 165). Berlin, Germany: Springer Nature.

Nordin, A. B. (1995). Penilaian Afektif. Kajang, Malaysia: Masa Enterprise.

Norusis, M.J. & SPSS Ins. (1993). SPSS for Windows: Base System User's Guide. SPSS Ins.

Pablico, J. (2010). Misconceptions on Force and Gravity Among High School Students. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3908.8405.

Panasan, M., & Nuangchalerm, P. (2010). Learning outcomes of project-based and inquiry-based learning activities. Journal of Social Science, 6(2), 252–255.

Pedaste, M., & Sarapuu, T., (2006). Developing an effective support system for inquiry learning in a Web-based environment. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 22(1), 47-62

Pedaste, M., Mäeots, M., Leijen, Ä., & Sarapuu, S. (2012). Improving students’ inquiry skills through reflection and self-regulation scaffolds. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning, 9(1-2), 81-95.

Regan, E., & DeWitt, J. (2015). Attitudes, interest and factors influencing STEM enrolment behaviour: An overview of relevant literature. Understanding student participation and choice in science and technology education, 63-68.

Rusell, J.D. (1974). Modular Instruction: A Guide to the Design, Selection, Utilization and Evaluation of Modular Materials. Publishing Company.

Self, B. P., Widmann, J. M., Prince, M. J., & Georgette, J. (2013). Inquiry-based learning activities in dynamics. In 2013 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition (pp. 23-761).

Seman, S. C., Yusoff, W. M. W., & Embong, R. (2017). Teachers challenges in teaching and learning for higher order thinking skills (HOTS) in primary school. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(7), 534-545.

Surya, J. P., & Wahyudi, I. (2018). Implementation Of The STEM Learning To Improve The Creative Thinking Skills Of High School Student In The Newton Law Of Gravity Material. Journal Of Komodo Science Education, 1(01), 106-116.

Tuckman, B. W., & Waheed, M. A. (1981). Evaluating an individualized science program for community college students. Journal of research in science teaching, 18(6), 489-495.

Vale, J. D. (1998). Traditional Reliability. Dependable Embedded Systems.

Wahid, N. T. A. (2019). Development of A Problem-Posing Multimedia Module and Its Effectiveness to Enhance Student Performance in Form Four Biology. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Zhou, S., Zhang, C., & Xiao, H. (2015). Students’ understanding on Newton’s third law in identifying the reaction force in gravity interactions. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 11(3), 589-599.

How to Cite
Abdul Halim Roslan, & Nur Jahan Ahmad. (2022). GRAVI-STEM MODULE’S VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY. Asian People Journal (APJ), 5(2), 29-40.