• Norshahira Osman Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Malaysia
  • Ateerah Abdul Razak Faculty of Language Studies and Human Development, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 16300 Bachok, Malaysia
  • Lukman Z. Mohamad Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Malaysia
  • Hayuni Mazlan Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 21300 Kuala Nerus, Malaysia


Abstract: The prevalence of suicide among drug addicts is common and one of the biggest challenges faced by society. Studies have found that substance use is associated with suicide ideation. Early detection of suicidal intent among addicts is important to ensure they do not take further action to prevent suicidal acts. This study used a psychometric instrument, namely the Suicidal Ideation Behavioural Assessment (SIBA®). The four main components involved were interpersonal conflict, emotional disorder, depression, and hopelessness. A descriptive study was conducted in this study. Altogether, a total of 123 drug addicts in Malaysia participated in this study as respondents. The descriptive analysis shows that 52.85% of addicts had low suicidal ideation behaviour, 21.95% were moderate, 3.25% high, and 0.81% very high. Findings from this study showed that drug addicts have high suicide ideation, which can be a risk factor for suicide attempts. It is suggested to focus on early detection of suicide ideation. This study is expected to make a significant contribution to the government, especially the rehabilitation centre, in helping addicts who have suicidal ideation behaviours to be given better attention and psychosocial support services.

Keywords: Conflict Interpersonal; Emotional Disorder; Depression; Hopelessness; Suicidal Ideation Behavioural Assessment


Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan. (2020). Laporan Tahunan Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan 2019. Malaysia: Agensi Anti Dadah Kebangsaan. Bangi, Malaysia: AADK.

Boduszek, D., & Dhingra, K. (2016). Construct Validity Of The Beck Hopelessness Scale (Bhs) Among University Students: A Multitrait–Multimethod Approach. Psychological Assessment, 28(10), 1325-1330.

Bao, Y., Zhu, F., Hu, Y., & Cui, N. (2016). The Research of Interpersonal Conflict and Solution Strategies. Psychology, 7(4), 541-545.

Brent, D. A. (1995). Risk Factors for Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior: Mental and Substance Abuse Disorders, Family Environmental Factors, and Life Stress. Suicide Life Threat Behavior, 25, 52–63.

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Conner, K., Bagge, C., Goldston, D., & IIgen, M. (2014). Alcohol And Suicidal Behavior: What Is Known and What Can Be Done. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47(3), 204-208.

Curtin, S. C., Warner, M., & Hedegaard, H. (2016). Increase in suicide in the United States, 1999-2014 (No. 2016). US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

Dwyer, S. T. O. (2013). Suicidal ideation and resilience in family carers of people 116 with dementia: A pilot qualitative study Abbreviated Title: Suicidal ideation in dementia carers Wendy Moyle Sierra Van Wyk Centre for Health Practice. Innovation Griffith University Suicidal, 17(6), 753–760.

Hesse, M., Thylstrup, B., & Seid, A. K. (2020). Suicide among people treated for drug use disorders: A Danish national record-linkage study. BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1-9.

Ibishi, N., Kola, V., Ramiqi, V., Musliu, N. (2013). Risk and suicide behavior of hospitalized offenders in the forensic setting clinic of psychiatry -in Kosova (Abstracts of the 21st European Congress of Psychiatry). European Psychiatry, 26, 1832.

Inman, D., van Bakergem, K., LaRosa, A., & Carr, D. (2011). Evidence-based health promotion programs for school and communities. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(2), 207-219.

Klonsky, E. D., May, A. M., & Saffer, B. Y. (2016). Suicide, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation”. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12(14), 14-24.

Lesage, A. D., Boyer, R., Grunberg, F., Vanier, C., Morissette, R., Ménard-Buteau, C., & Loyer, M. (1994). Suicide and mental disorders: a case-control study of young men. The American journal of psychiatry.

Lliceto, E., & Fino, E. (2015). Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). A Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. European. Journal of Psychological Assessment, 31(1), 31-37.

Maniam Thambu (2010). Hidup atau Mati: Masalah Bunuh Diri di Malaysia dari Perspektif Psikiatri. Bangi, Malaysia: Penerbit UKM.

Mitchell, K. J., Turner, H. A., & Jones, L. M. (2019). Youth exposure to suicide attempts: relative impact on personal trauma symptoms. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 56(1), 109-115.

Moscicki, E. K. (2001) Epidemiology of Completed and Attempted Suicide: Toward a Framework for Prevention. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 1(5), 310-323.

National Survey of Drug Use and Health. (2018). The NSDUH Report: Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviours Among Adults. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

Norshahira, O. Norashida, S. R. & Lukman, Z. M. (2021). Keabsahan dan Kebolehpercayaan Instrumen Psikometrik Ujian Tingkah Laku Hasrat Bunuh Diri. Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (MJSSH), 6(9), 117-128.

Norshahira, O, Norashida S. R, & Lukman Z. M. (2020). Validity and reliability test for suicidal ideation behaviour instrument for drug addicts. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 4(9), 548-553.

O’Connor, R. C. & Nock, M. K. (2014). The psychology of suicidal behaviour. Lancet Psychiatry, 1(1), 73-85.

Oquendo, M. A., & Baca-Garcia, E. (2014). Suicidal behavior disorder as a diagnostic entity in the DSM-5 classification system: Advantages outweigh limitations. MWorld Psychiatry, 3(2), 128-130.

Pompili, M., Serafini G., Innamorati M., Biondi M., Siracusano A. & Di Giannantonio M. (2012). “Substance abuse and suicide risk among adolescents”. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 262, 469–485.

Sparks, K. J. (2017). Encyclopedia Britannica 2017: Book of the year.

Statovci, S. (2012). The relationship of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness with suicidal ideation and behavior among youth (abstracts of the 20th European Congress of Psychiatry). European Psychiatry, 27(1), 1-1.

Stoyanova, S. Y. (2014). Depression—Factors, symptoms, prevention and the role of open journal of depression. Open Journal of Depression, 3(01), 3-4.

Taylor, J. (2018). Illegal Drug Use, Suicidal Ideation, and Attempted Suicide among New York Adolescents (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Ugwuoke, A. C. (2016). Precipitants of suicide among secondary school students in Nigeria. Bassery Andah Journal, 9(2), 147-156.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2014). World Drug Report. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Van Orden, K. A., Witte, T. K., Cukrowicz, K. C., Braithwaite, S. R., Selby, E. A., & Joiner, T. E. (2010). The interpersonal theory of suicide. Psychological Review, 117(2), 575-600.

Vehbiu, B., & Bodinaku, B. (2014). Prevalence of suicidal behavior among male drug users in Kosovo. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 159, 375-380.

Vijayakumar, L., Kumar, M. S., & Vijayakumar, V. (2011). Substance use and suicide. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 24(3),197-202.

Wong, S.S., Zhou, B., Goebert, D., & Hishinuma, E.S., (2013). The risk of adolescent suicide across patterns of drug use: a nationally representative study of high school students in the United States from 1999 to 2009. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 48, 1611–1620.

World Health Organization (2018). Suicide In The World: Global Health Estimates. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

How to Cite
Osman, N., Abdul Razak, A., Mohamad, L. Z., & Mazlan, H. (2023). MEASURING SUICIDAL IDEATION AMONG DRUG ADDICTS IN THE REHABILITATION CENTER. Asian People Journal (APJ), 6(1), 133-142.