Effect of Piper betle Leaf Extract-Loaded Chitosan Nano Particle as Fruit-Coating Assay to Control Anthracnose on Mango
Green betel leaf (Piper betle L.) is one of the plants being used for traditional herbal medicine. This study aimed to determine betel leaf extract-chitosan nanoparticles to control anthracnose disease on mango. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the betel leaf extract was done by pyrolysis GC-MS; while chitosan nanoparticles were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and PSA analysis. The results showed that the green betel leaf extract contains 71.18 + 0.3% of antifungal phenolic compounds. The most phenolic compounds and their derivatives in the betel leaf extract was 1-hydroxy-4-methylbenzotriazole. Chitosan hydrolysis reduced the chitosan MW from 754.89 kDa to 245.85 kDa. Based on FTIR analysis, hydrolysis treatment and the addition of extract affected the existence of chitosan functional group, and wave numbers. The absorption of aromatic groups was observed at 1000 - 650 cm-1 wave numbers. The sizes of particle were ranged from 101 + 6.25 nm to 431.1 + 4.32 nm. The size of chitosan without hydrolysis was bigger than that of chitosan with hydrolysis. The SEM morphology of the chitosan nanoparticle-betel leaf extract was spherical shape. Chitosan hydrolysis treatment had a higher antifungal effect than that of chitosan without hydrolysis. The mass ratio of chitosan nanoparticles and betel leaf extracts (3:1; v/v) of both without hydrolysis and with hydrolysis was found as a good formula in suppressing anthracnose on mangoes with the degree of disease inhibition of 85.88% and 98.82%, respectively. The betel leaf extract-loaded chitosan nanoparticle treatment may offer the fruit shelf life up to 6 days.