WATCHDOG JOURNALISM IN NIGERIA: DEMOCRACY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
Mass media has recorded tremendous achievement in Nigeria political system, particularly towards educating the masses on the government policies and programmes. This action performed by the media has significantly influenced the voting behaviour of the electorates in Nigeria which arguably attributed to the historical landmark success recorded in the country by the opposition party (All Progressive Party) to unseat the ruling party (Peoples Democratic Party) during the 2015 general election. The study examines the media role in Nigeria towards ensuring that the political officers/politicians are accountable to the masses whom their interests is represented. The study makes use of structuration theory that explain how the structure and action of man make the society and that the two are indivisible to study. The actions of man that affects the structure must have be attributed to the role and the kind of information disseminated by the media in such society. The study reveals that some media houses subject themselves to tool of oppression by the ruling party in order deprive the opposition of their rights to access media and canvass for votes. The study equally reveals that the unethical practice among the media to discriminate over the political parties’ programmes is capable of jeopardizing the political awareness of the masses. This study therefore is a qualitative in nature that employs the use of secondary data source of data to assess how media ensure that the political officers are accountable to the masses in Nigeria.
Keywords: Media, Accountability, Voting Behaviour, Democracy
Abdulla, R. A., Garrison, B., Salwen, M., Driscoll, P., & Casey, D. (2002, August). The Credibility of Newspapers, Television News, and Online News. In Education in Journalism Annual Convention, Florida USA.
Aborisade, R.A. (2017). Mass Media and the Cultivation of Fear of Crime in Nigeria. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, Vol. 6(1), pp. 168-180.
Adaba, T. (2015, February 22). 2015 Presidential Election and the Broadcast Media. Vanguard Newspaper. Lagos, Nigeria.
Adebowale, S.A., Fagbamigbe, F.A. & Bamigboye E.A. (2014). Re-Analysis of Nigerian 2006 Census Age Distribution Using Growth Rate and Mortality Level. Southern African Journal of Demography. Vol. 15(1), pp.81-99.
Adepoju A. (2015) Beyond Influence: Media and the 2015 Presidential Election. Academia.edu, Accessed on 30th August, 2018 - Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/44936033/Conference-Paper-by-Ismail - Adegboyega-and-Co.pdf
Aduloju, A. A. (2016). Youth Networks on Facebook and Twitter during the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria. Journal of African Elections. Vol. 15(2), pp.28-49.
Agbaje, A., Akande, A., & Ojo, J. (2007). Nigeria's ruling party: A complex web of power and money. South African Journal of International Affairs. Vol. 14(1), pp. 79-97.
Al-Zubaidi, L. (2011, May 2). People’s Power: the Arab World in Revolt. Political Analysis and Commentary from the Middle East.
Arias, M., (2011). Arab Revolution versus Western Democracy? About riots in Arab world. Eikasia. Revista de Filosofía, año 38. http://www.revistadefilosofia.com
Ashworth, S. (2012). Electoral Accountability: Recent Theoretical and Empirical Work. Annual Review of Political Science. Vol. 15, pp. 183–201.
Barnett, C. & Low, M. (2009). Democracy. International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, pp. 70-74
Bashir, M., Sani, M. A. M., & Zakuan, U. A. A. (2018). Politicization of the Broadcast Media: An Examination of 2015 General Elections in Nigeria. International Journal of Management Research and Review. Vol. 8(4), pp. 31-41.
Besley, T. & Burgess, R. (2002). The Political Economy of Government Responsiveness: Theory and Evidence from India. Quarterly Journal of Economics. Vol. 117(4), pp. 1415–1451.
Bowles, N., Hamilton, J.T., & Levy, D. (2013). Transparency in Politics and the Media: Accountability and Open Government. IB Tauris.
Brunetti, A. & Weder, B. (2003). A Free Press is Bad News for Corruption. Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 87, pp. 1801–1824.
Bruns, C., & Himmler, O. (2016). Mass media, instrumental information, and Electoral Accountability. Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 134, pp. 75-84.
Bryant, C. G., & Jary, D. (2003). Anthony Giddens. In Ritzer, G. The Blackwell Companion to Major Contemporary Social Theorists, (pp. 247-273). Maldex, Massachusetts Oxford: Blackwell.
Chowdhury, S.K., (2004). The Effect of Democracy and Press Freedom on Corruption: An Empirical Test. Economics Letters. Vol. 85(1), pp. 93–101.
Corneo, G. (2006). Media Capture in a Democracy: The Role of Wealth Concentration. Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 90(1-2), pp. 37-58.
Corrigall-Brown, C., & Wilkes, R. (2014). Media exposure and the engaged citizen: How the Media Shape Political Participation. The Social Science Journal. Vol. 51(3), pp. 408-421.
Danju, I., Maasoglu, Y., & Maasoglu, N. (2013). From Autocracy to Democracy: The Impact of Social Media on the Transformation Process in North Africa and Middle East. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 81, pp. 678-681.
Daryl Slaton, C. & Becker, T. (2000). Democracy Beyond the Information Age: 21st Century Political Communication. Foresight, Vol. 2 (2), pp. 199-209.
Dash, A. K. (2012). Media Impact on Corporate Governance in India: A Research Agenda. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society. Vol. 12(1), pp. 89-100.
Elegalem, P. O. (1985). Economic Factors in the Development of Mass Communication in Nigeria. In Frank Ugboajah (Ed.), Mass Communication, Culture and Society in West Africa (pp. 63–73). London: Hans Zell Publishers.
Enahoro, A. B. & Ude, I. G. (2017). Altruism and Mass Media: A Note on Capacity Building and Reconstruction in a Multi-Ethnic Society. International Journal of Communication, Vol. 9(1), pp. 57-65.
European Union Election Observer Mission, (2015). Reports on Nigeria’s 2015 General election. Abuja, Nigeria. Accessed on 30th August, 2018 - http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/nigeria/docs/eu-eom-nigeria-2015-final-report_en.pdf
Falkowski, J. (2013). Political Accountability and Governance in Rural Areas: Some Evidence from the Pilot Programme Leader + in Poland. Journal of Rural Studies. Vol. 32, pp. 70-79.
Faris, D.M. (2015). New Media and Democracy in the Arab World. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2nd Edition, Vol. 16, pp. 776-781.
Fatoba, W.O. (2012). Media Law and Ethics in Nigeria, A Comparative Analysis, Second Edition, ISBN 978-32781-8-5.
Federal Republic in Nigeria (1999). Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: Federal Government Press.
Frank, R. S. (1973). Message Dimensions of Television News. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Freille, S., Haque, M.E. & Kneller, R. (2007). A contribution to the empirics of press Freedom and Corruption. European Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 23, pp. 838–862.
Gade, P. J., Nduka, E. L., & Dastgeer, S. (2017). Developing Sustainable News Media in Africa: A Professionalisation Model to Curtail “the Brown Envelope” and other Corrupting Influences. Journal of Media Business Studies, Vol. 14(1), pp. 5-24.
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford University Press.
Giddens, A. (2013a). The Consequences of Modernity. John Wiley & Sons.
Giddens, A. (2013b). The third way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. John Wiley & Sons.
Hamilton, J.T., (2009). Subsidizing the Watchdog: What Would It Cost to Support Investigative Journalism at a Large Metropolitan Daily Newspaper. Duke Conference on Nonprofit Media.
Hyndman, N. and McKillop, D. (2018). Public Services and Charities: Accounting, Accountability and Governance at a Time of Change. The British Accounting Review. Vol. 50(2), pp. 143-148.
Iggers, J. (2018). Good News, Bad News: Journalism Ethics and the Public Interest. Routledge.
Issa, A. A. (2016). Assessment of the Role of Media in the 2015 Nigerian General Election. Accessed on 2nd September, 2018 - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309155502_Assessment_of_the_Role_of_Media_in_the_2015_Nigerian_General_Election
Jackson, P. M. (1982). The Political Economy of Bureaucracy. London: Philip Allan.
Jefferson, T., Mc Clure, J. P., & Oberg, B. B. (1950). The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 29(1) March 1796 to 31 December 1797. Princeton University Press.
Kent, M. L. (2013). Using Social Media Dialogically: Public Relations Role in Reviving Democracy. Public Relations Review. Vol. 39(4), pp. 337-345.
Mabadeje, I. (2004). The Nigerian Press Under the Military. Robert minder International Limited
Malinowska, A., & Miller, T. (2017). Sensitive Media. Open Cultural Studies. Vol.1(1), pp. 660-665.
Mamdani, M. (2018). Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton University Press.
Marzbali, M. A., Delavari, A., & Souri, F. (2016). Agent, Structure, and the Media-based Democratic Politics. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. Vol. 217, pp. 1225-1232.
McChesney, R., Nichols, J., (2011). The Death and Life of American Journalism: The Media Revolution That Will Begin the World Again. Nation Books.
Mgbejume, O. (1991). Constraints on Mass Media Policies in Nigeria. Africa Media Review, Vol. 5(2), pp. 47-57.
Mohammed, Z. (1994). Towards bridging the information gap in developing countries: the case of Nigeria. The International Information & Library Review, 26(2), 91-105.
National Population Commission (2006). Report on 2006 Census Operations and Provisional Results. Accessed on 30th August, 2018 – www.population.gov.ng
Nigerian Electoral Act (2010). Electoral Act. Accessed on 30th August, 2018 - http://nai.uu.se/library/resources/thematicresources/elections-in-nigeria-2011/2010_Electoral_Act.pdf
Nigerian Television Authority (2018). About Us. Accessed on 30th August, 2018 - http://www.nta.ng/
Nyuukonge, C. & Omotola, J.S. (2015). Nigeria’s 2015 General Elections: Challenges and Opportunities. ACCORD Policy and Practice Brief (PPB). No. 33, Durban, South Africa, Accessed on 2nd September, 2018 - http://www.accord.org.za/publication/nigeria-2015-general-elections/
Nwabueze, C. (2017). Mass Media and Community Mobilization for Development. International Journal of Communication, Vol. 2(1), pp. 1-9.
Ojo, E. O. (2003). The mass media and the challenges of sustainable democratic values in Nigeria: Possibilities and limitations. Media, Culture & Society. Vol. 25(6), pp. 821-840.
Olaoluwa, R.B. (2016). Broadcast Media as an Instrument of change during 2015 electioneering campaigns in Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (Nigerian Chapter). Vol. 3(12), pp. 14–27.
Olowojolu, O. (2016). Role of Media in 2015 Presidential Election in Nigeria. International Journal of Politics and Good Governance. Vol. vii(7.1), Quarter I
Orji, N. (2015). The 2015 Nigerian General Elections. African Spectrum. Vol. 50(2), pp. 73-85.
Ojete, N.E. (2008). Mass Media in Nigerian Democracy. Stirling-Horden Publishers Ltd. Ibadan
Pate, U.A. & Dauda, S. (2013). Media and Social Economic Development in Northern Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Communication. Vol. 29(1), pp. 1-19.
Pew Research Center, (2013). Amid Criticism, Support for Media’s “Watchdog” Role Stands Out. retrieved 08/14/2014 from http://www.people-press.org/2013/08/ 08/amid-criticism-support-for-medias-watchdog-role-stands-out/.
Richardson, J. (2007). Democracy’s Tribulations: What’s in Store? Foresight, Vol. 9(4), pp. 45-57.
Roberts, J., Scapens, R. (1985). Accounting Systems and Systems of Accountability – Understanding Accounting Practices in their Organisational Contexts. Accounting, Organizations and Society. Vol. 10(4), pp. 443-456.
Rose, N. (1999). Powers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought. Cambridge University Press.
Seteolu, B. (2017). What will Election be without the Media: An Appraisal of the Media and 2015 Presidential Elections in Nigeria. Journalism and Mass Communication. Vol. 7(2), pp. 78-89.
Sharansky, N. & Dermer, R. (2004). The Case for Democracy: The Power of Freedom to Overcome Tyranny and Terror, Public Affairs. New York, NY
Snyder, J.M., Strömberg, D., (2010). Press Coverage and Political Accountability. J. Polit. Econ. 118 (2), 355–408.
Stilwell, C. (2018). Information as Currency, Democracy, and Public Libraries. Library Management. Vol. 39(5), pp. 295-306.
Tsegyu, S., & Ogoshi, J. D. (2015). Mass Media and Challenges of Sustainable Development in Nigeria. Journal of Research in National Development. Vol. 13(1), pp. 51-61.
Uche, L. U. (1989). Mass Media, People, and Politics in Nigeria. Concept Publishing Company.
Waldman, S., (2011). Information Needs of Communities: The Changing Media Landscape in a Broadband Age. DIANE Publishing.
Wendt, A. E. (1987). The Agent-Structure Problem in International Relations Theory. International Organization. Vol. 41(3), pp. 335-370.
Wogu, J. O. (2017). The Mass Media and Democratic Transition in Nigeria, 1999-2003. International Journal of Communication, Vol. 1(1), pp. 155-163.
World Bank (2018). Population: Census Reports and other Statistical Publications from National Statistical Offices. Accessed on 1stMarch, 2018. - https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=NG
Worldometers, (2018). Population of Nigeria and Historical. Accessed on 3rdJanuary, 2018. - http://www.worldometers.info/
Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to transfer copyright. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. A notification will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article.