• Abu Shams Mohammad Mahmudul Hoque School of Business, Primeasia University, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Recently, digital technology has a major impact on various aspects of our life. Specially lifestyle of generation Z is heavily dependent on digital devices, internet service availability and innovative digital products for entertainment, interpersonal relationships, social networking, economic transactions, and overall information and knowledge gathering. However, this over dependence on digital devices seemingly results in addiction and has an effect to a great extent on their psychology and lifestyle. In this regard, several researches have been conducted in the western countries, but a very limited study has been done in emerging countries considering active university students and none has been done in Bangladesh. Hence, the aim of this study is to analyze the effects of digital device addiction (DDA) on the lifestyle of generation Z. A structured survey was conducted using 330 students of generation Z in Bangladesh. The hypothesis was tested using SEM-AMOS package 25.0 based on personality theory of addiction and theory of generation. This study has exposed that DDA has a significant effect on lifestyle of generation Z student in Bangladesh. This study extends the body of knowledge in the DDA, lifestyle of generation Z students in emerging country and recommend doing further research on the generation Z’s competencies in real life social interactions than virtual social life as well as monitoring should be employed to safeguard mental and physical heath of generation Z.


Adiguzel, O., Batur, H.Z., & Eksili, N. (2014). Kusaklarin Degisen Yuzu ve Y Kusagi ile Ortaya Cikan Yeni Calisma Tarzi: Mobil Yakalilar. Journal of Suleyman Demirel University Institute of Social SciencesYear, 1(19).

American Society for Addiction Medicine (2012). Definition of Addiction. Available from (Retrieved 9 September, 2018).

Angres, D.H., & Angres, B.K. (2008). The disease of addiction: Origins, treatment, and recovery. Disease-a-Month, 54(10), 696-721.

Arslan, A., Kırık, A. M., Karaman, M., Çetinkaya, A. (2015). Digital addiction in high school and university students. International Peer-Reviewed Journal of Communication and Humanities Research, 8(8), 34-58.

Australian McCrindle Research Center. (2018). Generation Z defined: The 5 characteristics of today’s students. (Retrieved 19 July, 2018).

Awang, Z. (2014). A Handbook on SEM for Academicians and Practitioners: the step by step practical guides for the beginners. Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Resources.

Awang, Z. (2015). SEM made simple: A Gentle Approach to Learning Structural Equation Modeling. Bandar Baru Bangi: MPWS Rich Resources.

Awang, Z., Ahmed, U., Hoque, A.S.M.M., Siddiqui, B.A., Dahri, A.S., & Muda, H. (2017a). The Mediating Role of Meaningful Work in the Relationship Between Career Growth Opportunities and Work Engagement. International Academic Confernce on Business and Economics (IACBE 2017), Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences (FESP), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), October 07-08.

Awang, Z., Hoque, A.S.M.M., Muda, H., & Salleh, F. (2017b). The Effects of Crowdfunding on Entrepreneur’s Self-Belief. International Academic Confernce on Business and Economics (IACBE 2017), Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences (FESP), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), October 07-08.

Begum, F.A. (2011). Growth of youth enterprises key to reducing unemployment. The Financial express, 4.

Bolle, C. (2014). Who is a smartphone addict? The impact of personal factors and type of usage on smartphone addiction in a Dutch population. University of Twente Enschede.

Boothroyd, D. (2014). Getting Your Fix: Technology Addiction. (Retrieved 7 September, 2018).

Brengman, M., Geuens, M., Weijtiers, B., Smith, S.M., & Swinyard, W.R. (2005). Segmenting Internet shoppers based on their web-usage-related lifestyle: A cross-cultural validation. Journal of Business Research, 58: 79-88.

Bull, M. (2005). No dead air! The iPod and the culture of mobile listening. Leisure Studies, 24(4), 343-355.

Cagan, O., Unsal, A., & Celik, N. (2014). Evaluation of college students the level of Addiction to Cellular Phone and Investigation on the Relationship between the Addiction and the Level of Depression. Social and Behavioral Science, 114, 831-839.

CBS News (2012). Digital addiction may damage your brain: Study. Available from (Retrieved 10 September, 2018).

Chanaron, J.J. (2013). Innovative lifestyle: towards the life of future-an exploratory essay. Megatrend revija, 10(1), 63-82.

Chen, H. (2010). Advertising and Generational Identity: A Theoretical Model. University of Tennessee, 132-140.

Choiz, M. (2012). Mobile-phone addiction in adolescence: The Test of Mobile Phone Dependence (TMD), Prog Health Sci, 2(1), 33-44.

Commonwealth Youth Program (CYP) (2013). Youth Development Index Results Report. Retrieved 12 March, 2018.

Connelly, M. (2010, June 6th). Some Americans Sense a Downside to an Always Plugged in Existence. The New York Times.

Cover, R. (2004). Digital addiction: The cultural production of online and video games junkies media. International Australia Incorporating Culture and Policy, 113, 110-123.

Delahoyde, T. (2009). Generational Differences in Baccalaurate Nursing (Doctoral dissertation, PhD. Dissertation, College of St. Mary, http:// Retrieved 14 September, 2018.

Ensari, M.S. (2017). A study on the differences of entrepreneurships potential among generations. Research Journal of Business and Management, 4(1), 52-62.

Erickson, T. (2012). How mobile Technologies are shaping a New Generation. Available from (Retrieved 7 September, 2018).

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981), Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 328-388.

Giuffrae, K., & DiGeronimo, T.F. (1999). The Care and Feeding of Your Brain: How Diet and Environment Affect What You Think and Feel. Career Pr Inc.

Goswami, V., & Singh, D.R. (2016). Impact of mobile phone addiction on adolescent’s life: A literature review. International Journal of Home Science, 2(1), 69-74.

Greenfield, S. (2010). Modern Technology is Changing the Way Our Brains Work, says (Retrieved 17 September, 2018).

Griffiths, M. (1999). Internet Addiction: Fact or Fiction? The Psychologist, 12(5), 246-250.

Gununc, S., & Kayri, M. (2010). The profile of internet dependency in Turkey and development of internet addiction scale: Study of validity & reliability. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 39(39), 220-232.

Haverlag, D. (2013). Compulsief gebruik van sociale media op de smartphone. University of Utrecht, Utrecht.

Hoon, K.K., Park, J.Y., Yul, K.D., Moon, H.L., Chun, H.C. (2002). E-Lifestyle and Motives to Use Online Games. Iris Marketing Review, 15(2), 71-72.

Hoque, A.S.M.M. (2018a). The effect of entrepreneurial orientation on Bangladeshi SME performance: Role of organizational culture. International Journal of Data and Network Science, 2(1), 1-14.

Hoque, A.S.M.M. (2018b). Does government support policy moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and Bangladeshi SME performance? A SEM approach. International Journal of Business Economics and Management Studies, 6(3), 37-59.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., & Awang, Z. (2016a). The Impact of Marketing Strategy on Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs): Case Study in Bangladesh. International Postgraduate Research Conference (IPRC 2016), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Gong Badak Campus, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia, October 8-10.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., & Awang, Z. (2016b). The Sway of Entrepreneurial Marketing on Firm Performance: Case of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh, Terengganu International Business and Economics Conference (TiBEC-V), Terengganu, Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), pp. 174-194.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., & Awang, Z. (2016c). Exploratory Factor Analysis of Entrepreneurial Marketing: Scale Development and Validation in the SME context of Bangladesh, International Social Sciences and Tourism Research Conference, Terengganu, UniSZA, pp. 20-22.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., & Awang, Z. (2019). Does gender difference play moderating role in the relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and Bangladeshi SME performance? Accounting, 5(1), 35-52.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., & Ghani, N.A. (2016). Conceptual Model for Quality of Life in the Perspective of Social Entrepreneurship. International Conference on Science, Engineering, Management and Social Science (ICSEMSS 2016), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia, October 6-8.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., & Salam, S. (2017a). The Effects of Relationship Marketing on Firm Performance: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Bangladesh, 1st International Conference on Business and Management (ICBM-2017), BRAC Business School (BBS), BRAC University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, September 21-22.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., & Siddiqui, B.A. (2017b). Technopreneurial Intention among University Students of Business Courses in Malaysia: A Structural Equation Modeling. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small & Medium Enterprise (IJESME), 4, 1-16.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., & Siddiqui, B.A., (2018a). Upshot of Generation ‘Z’ Entrepreneurs’ E-lifestyle on Bangladeshi SME Performance in the Digital Era. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small & Medium Enterprise (IJESME), 5(July).

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., Jusoff, K., Salleh, F., & Muda, H. (2017c). Social Business Efficiency: Instrument Development and Validation Procedure using Structural Equation Modelling, International Business Management, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 222-231.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., Muda, H., & Salleh, F. (2018b). Ramification of crowdfunding on Bangladeshi entrepreneur’s self-efficacy. Accounting, 4(4),129-138. DOI:

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Awang, Z., Siddiqui, B.A., & Sabiu, M.S. (2018c). Role of Employee Engagement on Compensation System and Employee Performance Relationship among Telecommunication Service Providers in Bangladesh. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 8(3), 19-37. DOI:

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Gwadabe, U.M., & Rahman, M.A. (2017d). Corporate Entrepreneurship Upshot on Innovation Performance: The Mediation of Employee Engagement. Journal of Humanities, Language, Culture and Business, 1(6), 54-67.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Siddiqui, B.A., & Awang, Z. (2018d). Technopreneurial Competencies Effects on Bangladeshi SME Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling. 2nd ASIA International Multidisciplinary Conference (AIMC 2018), Faculty of Management, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru, Malaysia, May 12-13.

Hoque, A.S.M.M., Siddiqui, B.A., Awang, Z., & Baharu, S.M.A.T. (2018e). Exploratory Factor Analysis of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Context of Bangladeshi Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 3(2), 81-94.

Jiang, J., Phalp, K.T., & Ali, R. (2015). Digital addiction: Gamification for precautionary and recovery requirements. Available from (Retrieved 19 September, 2018).

Jones, T. (2014). Students’ Cell Phone Addiction and Their Opinions. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 5(1), 74-80.

Kaynak, E., & Kara, A. (2001). An examination of the relationship among consumer lifestyles, ethnocentrism, knowledge structures, attitudes and behavioural tendencies: A comparative study in two CIS states. International Journal of Advertising, 20(4), 457-482.

Kesici, A., & Tunc, N.F. (2018). Investigating the digital addiction level of the university students according to their purposes for using digital tools. University Journal of Educational Research, 6(2), 235-241.

Kır, I., & Sulak, S. (2014). Determining internet addiction level of faculty of education students. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 13(51).

Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psycholog ical well-being? American Psychologist, 53(9), 1017-1031.

Kubey R.W., Lavin, M.J., & Barrows, J.R. (2001). Internet use and collegiate academic performance decrements: Early findings. Journal of Communication, 51(2), 366- 382.

Lanigan, J. (2009). A sociotechnobogical model for family research and intervention: How information and communication technologies affect family life. Marriage & Family Review, 45(6-8), 587-609.

Lee, H.J., Lim, H., Jolly, L.D., and Lee, J. (2009). Consumer lifestyles and adoption of high-technology products: A case of South Korea. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 21(3), 153-167.

Leena, K., Tomi, L. & Arja, R. (2005). Intensity of mobile phone use and health compromising behaviors-how is information and communication technology connected to health-related lifestyle in adolescence? Journal of Adolescence, 28, 35–47.

Lin, L.Y., Shih, H.Y, & Lin, S.W. (2012). The influence of lifestyle and money attitude on purchase decisions: The moderating effect of marketing stimulation and personal value. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Technology, 2(2), 442-470.

Ma, H. (2004). Toward Global Competitive Advantage. Management Decision, 42(7): 907-924.

Mobile phones becoming a major addiction (2003, December 10). The Sydney Morning Herald. From (Retrieved May 15, 2018).

Morse, R.M., & Flavin, D.K. (1992). The definition of Alcoholism. Jama, 268(8), 1012-1014.

Muduli, J.R. (2014). Addiction to technological gadgets and its impact on health and lifestyle: A study on college students. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India.

Oster, E. (2014). This Gen Z Infographic Can Help Marketers Get wise to the Future Here Come the Social Natives, Retrieved 14 March, 2018.

Ozkan, M., & Solmaz, B. (2015). Mobile addiction of generation z and its effects on their social lifes:(An application among university students in the 18-23 age group). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 205, 92-98.

Pandey, S., & Chawla, D. (2014). E-lifestyles of Indian online shoppers: A scale validation. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21, 1068-1074.

Park, B., & Lee, K.C. (2011). The effect of users’ characteristics and experiential factors on the compulsive usage of the smartphone. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 151, 438-446.

Park, W.K. (2005). Mobile Phone Addiction. Computer Supported Cooperative Work,31(3), 253-272.

Parker-Pope, T. (2010, June 6th). An Ugly Toll of Technology: Impatience and Forgetfulness. The New York Times.

Parry, C. (2016). Addiction to technological devices: Its effect on an individual’s health, lifestyle and social skills. Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, U.K.

Randstad, U. (2014). AreGen Z and Millennials Really That different? Retrieved 10 March, 2018.

Richtel, M. (2010, November 21st). Growing up Digital, Wired for Distraction. The New York Times.

Rodriguez Anez, C.R., Reis, R.S., & Petroski, E.L. (2008). Brazilian version of a lifestyle questionnaire: translation and validation for young adults. Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia, 91(2), 102-109.

Roos, J.P. (2001). Postmodernity and mobile communications. Paper presented at the meeting of the European Sociological Association on 5th Conference of the ESA, Helsinki, Finland.

Rozgonjuk, D., Rosenvald, V., Janno, S., & Taht, K. (2016). Developing a shorter version of the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (E-SAPS18). Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 10(4), article 4, doi: 10.5817/CP2016-4-4.

Rugai, J., & Hamiliton-Ekeke, J. (2016). A Review of Digital Addiction: A Call for Safety Education. Journal of Education and e-Learning Research, 3(1), 17-22.

Scelfo, J. (2010, June 10th). The Risks of Parenting While Plugged In. The New York Times.

Şenol, O. (2010). A Research on investigation of internet using purposes of technical teacher candidates. Electronic Journal of Machine Technologies, 7(1), 97-109.

Shaffer, H.J., Hall, M.N., & Bilt, J.V. (1999). Computer addiction: A critical consideration. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 70(2), 162-168.

Sheopuri, A., & Sheopuri, A. (2014). Darker shade of smart phones: Boon to Bane. International Journal of Business Quantitative Economics and Applied Management Research, 1(7).

Siddiqui, B.A., & Hoque, A.S.M.M. (2018). Innovation Performance of Internet Service Providers in Bangladesh: The Sway of Corporate Entrepreneurship. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small & Medium Enterprise (IJESME), 5(July).

Simmons, L.L. (2008). The Everything Health Guide to Addiction and Recovery: Control Your Behavior and Build a Better Life. United States: Adams Media.

Singh, A. (2014). Challenges and Issues of Generation Z. Journal of Business and Management, 16(7), 59-63.

Singh, A.P., & Dangmei, J. (2016). Understanding The Generation Z: The Future Workforce. South-Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(3), 1-5.

Subba, S.H., Mandelia, C., & Nagraj, K. (2013). Ringxiety and the Mobile Phone usage Pattern among the Students of a Medical college in South India. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 7(2), 205-209.

Tapscott, D. (2008, November 10th). How Digital Technology Has Changed the Brain. Bloomsberg Businessweek.

Tayfun, A., & Yuksel, I. (2015). How to Manage Generation Z in Business Life? Journal of Global Economics, Management, and Business Research, 4(4), 195-202. (2016). ‘What is the digital revolution?’, in Techopedia. Available at: (Retrieved 19 September, 2018).

Temel, F., Onurmen, O., & Kopru, M. (2014). Digital means and the internet during electoral campaigns: A case study on university students. Global Media Journal, 5(9).

Thenu, C.T., & Keerthi, S. (2013). Prevalence of digital addiction and use of digital devices by students. EXCEL International Journal of Multidisciplinary Management Studies, 3(7), 118-128.

United Nation (UN) (2018). Youth Empowerment through Skills in Bangladesh. (Retrieved 19 June, 2018).

Van Deursen, A., & Van Dijk, J. (2012). Trendrapport internetgebruik 2012, een Nederlands en Europees perspectief. Universiteit Twente, Enschede.

Walker, B. (2014). The positive and negative impacts technology has on our daily lives. University of Wisconsin-Platteville.

You, S., Kim, E., & Lee, D. (2007). Virtually real: Exploring avatar ıdentification in game addiction among. Games and Culture, 12(1), 56-71.

Young, K.S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 1(3), 237-244.

Young, K.S. (2004). Internet Addiction: A New Clinical Phenomenon and Its Consequences. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(4), 402-415.

Young, K.S., Yue, X.D., & Ying, L. (2011). Prevalence estimates and etiologic models of Internet addiction. In K.S. Young & C.N. de Abreu (Eds.), Internet addiction: A handbook and guide to evaluation and treatment (pp. 3-17). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.

Yu, C., Li., C., & Chantatub, W. (2015). Analysis of Consumer E-Lifestyles and Their Effects on Consumer Resistance to Using Mobile Banking: Empirical Surveys in Thailand and Taiwan. International Journal of Business and Information, 10(2), 198-232.

Yu, C.S. (2011). Construction and validation of an e-lifestyle instrument. Internet Research, 21(3), 214-235.

How to Cite
Hoque, A. S. M. M. (2018). DIGITAL DEVICE ADDICTION EFFECT ON LIFESTYLE OF GENERATION Z IN BANGLADESH. Asian People Journal (APJ), 1(2), 21-44. Retrieved from